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What Countries were Involved in the Holocaust?

World War II Axis and Allies

The list of World War II Axis and Allies contains countries involved in the Holocaust that either supported or fought against the Nazi regime. This may not list all the countries or territories involved, but it does give you an idea of who did what during the Second World War.

The Axis

Axis powers include the countries of Germany, Romania, Bulgaria, Hungary, Italy and Japan. They did experience many deaths among them but not the most related to the Holocaust.

The Allies

Apparently, the Allied WWII powers outnumbered the Axis powers by 2.7 to 1 in 1938, a year before the war started. Note also that Poland, where one of the deadliest concentration camps existed, counts as an ally at this time. Poland probably had no choice after Nazi Germany took over it.

The list of Allies includes these countries: Some European countries include Poland, Britain, Belgium, Denmark, France, Greece, the Netherlands, The Former Soviet Union (USSR, which included Russia), Yugoslavia and Norway.

The United States, Brazil, Canada, China, New Zealand, South Africa and Australia make other places in the world that fought against the Nazi regime and the Holocaust.

Most Affected Countries and Deaths

Germany did not have the most Holocaust deaths, but it’s listed as one of the countries most affected by the Holocaust. You may want to review information about where most of the Jewish deaths occurred right before World War II started up to when WWII ended in 1945.


Between 1941 and 1945, Hitler's Nazi dictatorship slaughtered approximately 6 million European Jews. According to one of the website's staff writers, Germany is one of the most affected countries.

Hitler fixated on exterminating Jewish people from Nazi-occupied countries. Many nations across the world, however, became victims of this regime's oppression.


When most people think of concentration camps, they usually attribute this horrific memory to Poland. The Auschwitz concentration camp has received the infamous recognition as the deadliest camp of World War II, according to The History Channel Reporter Natasha Frost.

The Nazis took control of Poland in 1941. That's where many Jewish people from around the world ended up. An uncountable number of victims stayed in Belzec, Auschwitz-Birkenau and Chelmno concentration camps. In Auschwitz alone, about 960,000 of the estimated 1.1 million Jews sent here died.


Apparently, Austria is considered one of the most affected by the Holocaust. It’s 1938 population only totaled about 185,026 people. Of those, about 65,459 of them lost their lives.


In 1938, Italy’s population totaled about 58,412. After Germany took over, the number of people living their calculated at 43,000. About 7,858 died here, and that’s considered a terrible thing. However, Italy many have not received a “most affected” title because of those deaths. It’s most likely because of its collaboration with Nazi Germany.

Refuge for Survivors

About 7,000 people survived the Auschwitz Poland camp. Another estimated 250,000-300,000 people at least saw a few days to a few months after Holocaust liberation.

On May 14, 1948, Israel became a nation which occurred about three years after the end of World War II. Some reporters attributed this action to one of finding a homeland for Jewish survivors.

- Total death counts are quite difficult to obtain, due to intentionally secretive actions and chaotic wartime record keeping. All data should be viewed as educated estimates.
- Listed totals for Germany include both Germany and Austria, which had been annexed by Germany at the time the Holocaust took place.
- Countries whose names or forms have changed since WWII, such as the Soviet Union and Czechoslovakia, are listed by their modern names.
- The modern-day countries of Bosnia and Herzegovina, Croatia, Kosovo, Montenegro, North Macedonia, Serbia, and Slovenia were all part of Yugoslavia at the time of the Holocaust. As such, their Jewish population data is included in Yugoslavia's total.

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Jewish Population Pre WWII
Jewish Population Post WWII
Change in Population
% Change
WWII Status
Additional Details
Germany300,00027,000273,00091%Axis allyLed by dictator Adolf Hitler, who conceived the Holocaust, Germany was the leader of the Axis powers.
Poland3,300,000300,0003,000,00091%OccupiedPoland's government went into exile, after which Germany annexed some of Poland and occupied the rest. Many thousands of Jews were first confined to ghettos and later exterminated.
Czech Republic253,00025,000228,00090%OccupiedHuge numbers of Jews were deported from the area now known as the Czech Republic. For example, 42,000 Jews were deported from Theresienstadt in 1942, of which 356 are known to have survived. It has been suggested that even more Jews would have been deported if their labor had not been needed to keep the factories running.
Lithuania155,00015,000140,00090%OccupiedMost Jews in Lithuania died at the hands of German death squads and local anti-semetic paramilitaries such as the Lithuanian Activist Front. By some estimates, up to 95% of Jews in Lithuania were killed, a higher percentage than in any other country.
Latvia93,0009,00084,00090%OccupiedMore than 2700 Jews were killed in staged progroms and another 26,000 by ethnic cleansing operations.
Netherlands140,00020,000120,00086%OccupiedPolice were forced to help German forces track down and deport Jews.
Greece74,00012,00062,00084%OccupiedGovernment was replaced by Nazi-sypathetic government, including many officials who encouraged and assisted in the arrest and deportation of Jews.
Hungary750,000200,000550,00073%Axis allyHungary had been awarded part of Czechoslovakia in 1938 due in large part to Germany and had annexed part of Romania with Germany's support. Many native Jews and Jewish refugees were rounded up and deported to concentration camps, and others were killed by Hungarian armed forces or forced into "labor service", in which they worked in war zones and were often killed or captured by Russian forces, after which they were sent to die in Russian POW camps.
Belgium90,00025,00065,00072%OccupiedProper government went into exile, but interim government was known to have cooperated with Axis forces.
Estonia4,5002,0002,50056%OccupiedOccupied by both the USSR and Germany. While most Estonia Jews left the country before German occupation, those remaining were arrested and executed. Jews from other countries were also brought to labor and concentration camps established in Estonia by German forces.
Russia3,000,0001,500,0001,500,00050%OccupiedJews in Russia were aggressively exterminated by Nazi death squads.
Norway1,80090090050%OccupiedRuled by German puppet regime while true government was in exile. Police and volunteers who joined Germanic SS helped deport at least 742 Jews, only 23 of which are known to have survived.
Albania50025025050%OccupiedInvaded and occupied by Italy.
Italy57,00033,00024,00042%Axis allyLed by fascist dictator Benito Mussolini, Italy was among the first countries to ally with Germany as one of the main Axis powers.
Romania600,000430,000170,00028%Axis allyRomania joined the Axis in the hopes of regaining territory annexed by Hungary, regaining area annexed by the USSR in 1940, and quelling any threat of invasion by the Soviets. Romania killed more Jews than any country except for Germany. Thousands of Jews died either on the battlefield, as a result of pogroms, in concentration camps, or at the hands of German killing squads or other military or police officials.
Bulgaria64,00050,00014,00022%Axis allyBulgaria was slow to join the Axis for fear of antagonizing the Soviet Union and/or Yugoslavia, but ultimately joined after being promised part of Greece as a reward.
France350,000280,00070,00020%OccupiedThe Vichy France government in power at the time deported as least 75,000 Jews to Nazi concentration and extermination camps.
Denmark7,6007,600 OccupiedGovernment successfully prevented the mass murder of Danish Jews, but did surrender to Nazi forces a small number of Jewish refugees, most of whom are known to have been killed.
Finland2,0002,000 Axis allyFinland fought did not formally join the Axis, but fought alongside Axis forces against the USSR and cooperated with Axis
Japan Axis allyJapan's relative distance from Germany and lack of Jewish residents made it a non-factor in the Holocaust.
Austria See Germany
Serbia OccupiedSee Yugoslavia
Slovakia Axis allyHaving been largely established by Germany, Slovakia was highly dependent upon the Axis leader's support both politically and economically.
Croatia Axis allyCroatia was created by Germany during the dismemberment of Yugoslavia.
Slovenia OccupiedSee Yugoslavia
North Macedonia OccupiedSee Yugoslavia
Luxembourg OccupiedAnnexed into Germany in 1942, which made Luxembourgish men draft-eligible for the German army.
Montenegro OccupiedSee Yugoslavia
Monaco OccupiedSucceeded in protecting Monacan Jews, but turned over at least 42 Jewish refugees to Nazi forces.
showing: 29 rows

How many countries were involved in the Holocaust?

Approximately 23 separate countries were involved in the Holocaust. 6 countries were included in the Axis powers group and 17 were included in the Allies group of countries.

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