The most recent census of Sardinia was conducted in 2019, where it was found that a population of 1,622,257 had permanent residences there. This is a decline from the 2011 number, showing that the population's birth, death, and emigration rates fluctuate throughout the years. The first recorded census of Sardinia was conducted in 1485, where the population was recorded to be 157,578. Sardinia is the fourth least populated place in the country of Italy. Sardinia is an interesting place, as most of the urbanized areas do not follow the usual trend of being near the coast, but most of them lie in subcoastal areas that are located more towards the centre of the island.
This interesting layout attributes itself to historical necessities due to the repeated raids during the Middle Ages by the Saracens, who would plunder European and Christian countries that were near the Mediterranean area. Furthermore, Sardinia was raided well into the early 19th century by barbary raids, which made the coast extremely unsafe. The coastal plains have a swampy topography, which also deterred more modern settlements from moving toward the coastline in the late 20th century. It is only recently with the expansion of the tourism industry in Sardinia that major urban centers have found it more profitable to be nearer to the coast for visitors.
The population decline is because it is the region in Italy with the lowest fertility rate and the second-lowest birth rate in Italy. Italy itself has one of the lowest birth rates in the world. The growing aging of the population and the depopulation of many rural areas have made Sardinian villages largely uninhabited. If the trend continues, it is estimated that Sardinia will be the European island with the lowest population density, extremely similar to Iceland.
Sardinia is the second-largest island located in the Mediterranean Sea, right after the island of Sicily. It is considered one of the 20 regions of Italy and is found immediately south of Corsica, a French-governed island. Sardinia is one of the five Italian regions that have a degree of domestic autonomy and was granted a special statute - making its full name the Autonomous Region of Sardinia. Sardinians speak Italian as one of the main languages, but the population also has its own dialect, called Sardinian.
Sardinian is a recognized language within Italy, but it is gravely endangered. Regional laws provide measures to protect and recognize the language, as well as some other minority languages which are influenced by the nearby island of Corsican.
The main city of the island of Sardinia is Caligari and the island itself holds ten regional parks. Many tourists come from far and wide to enjoy the beautiful weather as well as the many tourist attractions, including the Gulf of Orosei and the Basilica of Saccargia.