Edinburgh Population 2021

542,599
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Edinburgh's 2021 population is now estimated at 542,599. In 1950, the population of Edinburgh was 452,816. Edinburgh has grown by 5,824 since 2015, which represents a 1.08% annual change. These population estimates and projections come from the latest revision of the UN World Urbanization Prospects. These estimates represent the Urban agglomeration of Edinburgh, which typically includes Edinburgh's population in addition to adjacent suburban areas.

Edinburgh is the capital of Scotland and has been since the 14th century. Located in Lothian on the shore of the Firth of Forth, Edinburgh has an estimated population of 489,000, which makes it the second most populous city in Scotland and the 7th in the United Kingdom.

City Size and Population Density

Edinburgh has a population density of 1,830 people per square kilometer (4,730 per square mile) in the city proper. The larger urban population is estimated at 820,000. The total surface area in Edinburgh is 264 square kilometers (102 square miles).

Edinburgh Demographics

Edinburgh has a young population with almost 20% of its population in their 20s. This is exceeded only by Aberdeen. 15% of the population are in their 30s, which is the highest percentage in Scotland.

At the 2011 UK census, the population of Edinburgh was:

  • White: 91.7%
  • Asian: 5.5%
  • Black: 1.4%
  • Christian: 43.0%
  • Muslim: 2.6%

The percentage of people born in the UK fell from 92% in 2001 to 84% in 2011, while those born outside of Scotland fell from 78% to 70% during the same time. Of those born in the UK, 83% were born in Scotland, and 14% were born in England.

The countries accounting for the most Edinburgh residents born overseas are: Poland (2.7%), Republic of Ireland (8,600), China (8,000), India (6,500), Pakistan (5,900), United States (3,700), Germany (3,500), Australia (2,000), France (2,000), Spain (2,000), South African (1,800) and Canada (1,800). Interestingly, 47% of the non-UK born population in the city are of European origin. This is the highest percentage of any UK city.

About 8% of the population is non-white, which is up from 4% in 2001. The largest non-white group are Asian, with Chinese being the largest subgroup account for 1.7% of the total population of Edinburgh. The Indian population accounts for 1.4% of the population while Pakistanis are about 1.2% of Edinburgh's population. Edinburgh also has the highest number and percentage of Bangladeshis in Scotland at 0.3% of the total population. Except for Inner London, Edinburgh has the highest number of people from the United States than any other UK city.

In terms of religion among the Edinburgh population, 43.0% of the population of Edinburgh is Christian, 2.6% of the populace is the follower of Islamic religion, and the remaining percentage belongs to other faiths.

Edinburgh History

Edinburgh has been inhabited since at least c. 8500 BC. When the Romans arrived in the area at the end of the 1st century AD, they found a Celtic Britonnic tribe named Votadini. Sometime before the 7th century AD, the Gododdin assumed to be descendants of the Votadini, built a hill fort. The stronghold was eventually attacked, and control passed to the Angles, who held power until the 10th century when the fortress fell to the Scots.

The royal burgh was founded in the 12th century by King David I. By the middle of the 14th century, it was described as the capital of Scotland, although it is not known exactly when it was founded or when it became the capital.

In the early 17th century, King James VI of Scotland succeeded to the English throne and united England and Scotland, although Scotland remained a separate kingdom at this time. Defensive walls still defined the town at this point, but the population kept growing to the point that homes became very tall, with buildings up to 11 stories or more as the beginning of modern-day skyscrapers.

By the 18th century, Edinburgh was one of the most densely populated and unsanitary towns in all of Europe, with social classes sharing the same space and same buildings. The city became the heart of the Scottish Enlightenment and soon became known as an intellectual center, earning the nickname "Athens of the North."

Through the 19th century, the city's distilling, brewing and printing industries continued to grow, along with engineering and rubber works. The city became the largest in Scotland by 1821, and much of it was deteriorating into slums before a revival and slum clearance.

In 1592, the population of Edinburgh was just over 8,000. The population grew quickly in the 18th and 19th centuries reaching 136,000 in 1831, mostly from residents migrating from rural areas to the city. This growing population led to poor sanitary conditions and outbreaks of cholera.

Edinburgh Population Growth

Edinburgh is preparing for a population boom that will cause its population to soar to 600,000 due to the highest predicted population growth in Scotland over the next twenty years. This growth will put a great deal of strain on the city's existing housing and public services unless more is done.

Forecasts have the number of people aged 85 and older doubling in Edinburgh by 2034, while births are expected to outpace deaths by at least 900 per year through 2035. In 2010, the number of deaths in the city was the lowest on record while births hit the highest recorded level. The most significant growth will be among 35-44-year-olds, as the city still has a very young population.

This growth will cause Edinburgh to rival Glasgow in size, which will grow at just half the pace.

Edinburgh Population 2021

Year Population Growth Rate Growth
2035603,7130.60%3,630
2034600,0830.62%3,677
2033596,4060.63%3,737
2032592,6690.65%3,810
2031588,8590.67%3,900
2030584,9590.69%3,999
2029580,9600.71%4,114
2028576,8460.74%4,256
2027572,5900.78%4,427
2026568,1630.82%4,629
2025563,5340.87%4,858
2024558,6760.92%5,107
2023553,5690.98%5,363
2022548,2061.03%5,607
2021542,5991.08%5,824
2020536,7751.14%6,034
2019530,7411.16%6,102
2018524,6391.17%6,092
2017518,5471.17%6,022
2016512,5251.17%5,950
2015506,5751.17%5,873
2014500,7021.17%5,806
2013494,8961.17%5,731
2012489,1651.17%5,679
2011483,4860.76%3,627
2010479,8590.61%2,897
2009476,9620.61%2,875
2008474,0870.61%2,866
2007471,2210.61%2,845
2006468,3760.61%2,827
2005465,5490.61%2,807
2004462,7420.61%2,797
2003459,9450.61%2,777
2002457,1680.61%2,759
2001454,4090.77%3,456
2000450,9530.80%3,587
1999447,3660.80%3,554
1998443,8120.80%3,526
1997440,2860.80%3,493
1996436,7930.80%3,475
1995433,3180.80%3,443
1994429,8750.80%3,415
1993426,4600.80%3,383
1992423,0770.80%3,366
1991419,7110.17%702
1990419,009-0.03%-126
1989419,135-0.03%-125
1988419,260-0.03%-126
1987419,386-0.03%-125
1986419,511-0.03%-126
1985419,637-0.03%-125
1984419,762-0.03%-126
1983419,888-0.03%-125
1982420,013-0.03%-126
1981420,139-0.67%-2,826
1980422,965-0.87%-3,710
1979426,675-0.87%-3,738
1978430,413-0.87%-3,771
1977434,184-0.87%-3,798
1976437,982-0.87%-3,843
1975441,825-0.87%-3,870
1974445,695-0.87%-3,905
1973449,600-0.87%-3,933
1972453,533-0.87%-3,979
1971457,512-0.28%-1,304
1970458,816-0.15%-699
1969459,515-0.15%-700
1968460,215-0.15%-703
1967460,918-0.15%-703
1966461,621-0.15%-705
1965462,326-0.15%-704
1964463,030-0.15%-707
1963463,737-0.15%-708
1962464,445-0.15%-708
1961465,1530.17%812
1960464,3410.25%1,167
1959463,1740.25%1,162
1958462,0120.25%1,160
1957460,8520.25%1,155
1956459,6970.25%1,155
1955458,5420.25%1,151
1954457,3910.25%1,148
1953456,2430.25%1,144
1952455,0990.25%1,144
1951453,9550.25%1,139
1950452,8160.00%

Edinburgh Population Data (Urban Area)

Name 2021 Population 2021 Growth
London9,425,6221.31%
Manchester2,750,1200.73%
Birmingham2,626,3740.73%
West Yorkshire1,901,9470.68%
Glasgow1,680,6690.44%
Southampton935,8680.86%
Liverpool906,4430.53%
Newcastle Upon Tyne813,8070.53%
Nottingham794,0080.81%
Sheffield735,2920.70%
Bristol693,5521.07%
Belfast634,5940.63%
Brighton612,1590.87%
Leicester556,9300.86%
Edinburgh542,5991.08%
Bournemouth510,0210.86%
Cardiff481,0820.72%
Coventry432,3861.60%
Middlesbrough388,9690.41%
Stoke On Trent387,7850.46%

Other Cities in United Kingdom

  1. National Records of Scotland - Scotland data and statistics
  2. Scotland's Census - Census records and data for Scotland
  3. National Records of Scotland - Edinburgh - City of Edinburgh demographic fact sheet
  4. World Urbanization Prospects - United Nations population estimates and projections of major Urban Agglomerations

Sources