Taipei, or Taipei City, is the capital and special municipality of Taiwan. Taipei is located in the northern region of Taiwan and it's an enclave of the New Taipei municipality. In 2015, Taipei has an estimated population of 2.7 million people with an urban population of 7.4 million.
Taipei is the 40th most populous urban region in the world and it's part of the Taipei-Keelung metro area -- which includes nearby Keelung and New Taipei -- with a population of 7 million. The Datong, Songshan, and Daan districts are the most densely populated and they are among the most densely populated neighborhoods globally. The Daan District, for example, has 28,518 people per square kilometer (71,295/square mile).
Taipei is Taiwan's cultural, economic, and political hub and one of the largest centers for the Chinese-speaking world. Taipei is a very high-tech city with high-speed rails, highways, and airports that connect it with all other parts of the island.
Taipei has four primary ethnic groups: the aborigines, Hoklos, Mainlanders, and Hakkas. The Mainlanders and Hoklos account for the majority of Taipei's population, although the Hakkas population has been growing over the last 20 years. The aboriginal population of Taipei is just under 13,000, most of whom are in the suburbs. Foreign-born people, mostly from Vietnam, Indonesia, and the Philippines, account for just 52,000 people.
Taipei/Taiwan Political Status
Taiwan has a very controversial political status that centers on whether Taiwan, Matsu, Kinmen, and Penghu should remain independent as territories of the Republic of China, become unified with territories governed by the People's Republic of China under the ROC, or declare independence and become the Republic of Taiwan.
In 1949, the Communist victory on mainland China led to 2 million Chinese Nationalists fleeing to Taiwan and establishing a government there for all of China. From then until 1971, Taiwan was recognized by the United Nations as "China." Mainland China has the position that Taiwan is a part of China although Taiwan claims independence as its own state. While Taiwan has maintained control over the island from Taipei since 1949, China continues to claim control of the island.
Taipei Population Growth
While the greater Taipei metro area is growing rapidly, the city proper has been losing people for many years as the population of New Taipei grows. This population loss has been slowed by new low density development and government campaigns to increase the city's birth rate.
The population of Taipei is aging quickly with 10% of the population over the age of 65.