The Gambia, officially the Republic of the Gambia, is a small country in West Africa along the Gambia River, surrounded by Senegal and a short bit of Atlantic coastline. The Gambia is the smallest country on mainland Africa.
The Gambia has just 10,689 square kilometers of land, which ranks 164th in the world. Its population density of 176 people per square kilometer (74th in the world). Despite having very little land area, the Gambia's population continues to grow due to a high fertility rate.
The capital of the Gambia is Banjul, which has a city population of 35,000. The Greater Banjul Area has a population estimated at 380,000 with an urban population density of 3,800 people per square kilometer (9,900/square mile). The Gambia's largest city is Serekunda, which has a city population of 350,000.
There are many ethnic groups in the Gambia. The largest is the Mandinka (42%), followed by the Fula (18%), Wolof (16%), Jola (10%), Serers, Serahule, and the Bianunkas. The Krio people are one of the smallest ethnicities in the country. There are about 3,500 non-Africans living in the country, including Europeans.
90% of the country adheres to Islam. Nearly 30% of the Gambia's population lives below the international poverty line of $1.25 USD per day. The Gambia is ranked 151st out of 169 countries on the Human Development Index.
The Gambia is one of the smallest and poorest nations in Africa with widespread poverty. The country has very little economic diversity, which makes it vulnerable to food price volatility and erratic rainfall. The Gambia is currently growing at a rate of 3% per year with a fertility rate of 4 children born to every woman.