The Fertile Crescent refers to an area of the world that helped establish modern-day civilization. This area included vital rivers and water access that helped provide essential irrigation to farming settlements in the Mediterranean and the Middle East. Due to the close water access and incredibly fertile soil, farming and livestock flourished in this area, establishing a fixed base for humanity to thrive and prosper. Due to an increase in agriculture and settlement, civilizations also advanced technologically, resulting in the invention of writing, glass, and the wheel. The area included in the Fertile Crescent also helped to create a land bridge between Eurasia and North Africa which allowed a greater spread of culture and agriculture from one part of the world to another.
The area of the Fertile Crescent also had a diverse climate which allowed for a range of plants to thrive. Compared to other farming attempts and prior settlements, better plant species could live in the Fertile Crescent area because they were perennials, allowing for return crops year after year. The Fertile Crescent also allowed for domesticated animals like sheep, goats, cows, pigs, and horses, which helped provide much-needed protein, fertilization, and even transportation from
The Fertile Crescent is located in the Middle East, including parts of the land touching the Mediterranean Sea. The area had several vital waterways, including rivers and estuaries, that helped provide much-needed irrigation to the site. The Fertile Crescent extended to the Nile River located in Egypt and the Euphrates and Tigris Rivers, found in Iraq. The northern part of the Fertile Crescent touches the Mediterranean Sea, while the eastern part of the Fertile Crescent stretches to the Persian Gulf. The Arabian Desert borders the southern portion of the Fertile Crescent.
The Fertile Crescent played a significant role in establishing modern agriculture and civilization as we know it. The areas within the Fertile Crescent are some of the oldest, most established societies globally. Today, the Fertile Crescent contains several countries in the Middle East. The countries in the Fertile Crescent include Syria, Iraq, Palestine, Lebanon, Israel, Jordan, Kuwait, Turkey, Egypt, and Iran.
Some scientists and historians who study the Fertile Crescent will also include Cyprus in the region, although this country is not traditionally included in the Fertile Crescent model. Although we may think of these Middle Eastern countries as desert landscapes, it is essential to remember that climates and waterways will evolve and change over time. Today's desert may have been a lush, fertile, and incredibly rich agricultural land thousands of years ago.
There were at least six civilizations in the Fertile Crescent. Besides Mesopotamia, these included the Egyptians, Sumerians, Babylonians, Assyrians, and Phoenicians.