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Independence from Spain by Country 2024

During the 16th century, the Spanish Empire conquered new regions. Colonized countries began detaching from Spain in the 19th century with the help of the United States.

The Spanish Netherlands belonged to Spain from 1556 to 1714. On January 30, 1648, Spain recognized the independence of the Dutch Republic, or what is now the Netherlands, though they did not lose control until 1700.

The Iberian Union, or modern-day Portugal, was recognized as an independent country on December 1, 1640. Spain and Portugal signed the Treaty of Lisbon, which liberated Portugal.

Spanish Formosa, or Taiwan, was ceded to Spain during the eighty-year war and gained independence in 1642.

Before it was the United States, parts of the US were occupied by Spain starting in 1492.

Louisiana, or the French First Republic, was part of the Spanish Empire and was granted independence on March 21, 1801. The territory included what are now US states that include Arkansas, Iowa, Missouri, Kansas, Oklahoma, Nebraska, Minnesota, New Mexico, Texas, North Dakota, South Dakota, Wyoming, Montana, Colorado, and parts of Canada.

During the Mexican War of Independence, New Spain, or Mexico, fought against the Spanish to gain sovereignty. Spain and Mexico signed the peace treaty on September 15, 1821.

Nicaragua, Panama, and Ecuador were all part of the Viceroyalty of New Granada. The countries gained their independence between 1821 and 1825.

Cuba and the Philippines, or the Captaincy General of Cuba, gained independence from Spain in 1868 but ended up occupied by the United States. Cuba and the Philippines gained full sovereignty from Spain and the US in 1946.

In 1899, Spain and the United States signed the Treaty of Paris, which granted the remainder of the US independence. The US territories Puerto Rico and Gaum were included in the Treaty of Paris.

  • In countries such as Italy and the United States, Spain controlled only part of the country's modern-day territory, which is detailed in the Modern State column.
  • Not every country became fully independent upon its release from Spanish control. Some were instead transferred to the control of another country, such as when portions of Modern Italy went from Spanish control to Austrian control after the Treaty of Rastatt.

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Country
Modern State
Date Obtained
Preindependence Name
Previous Name
Additional Details
ArgentinaArgentina09-07-1816Viceroyalty of the Río de la PlataUnited Provinces of the Río de la Plata
Argentine wars of independence
BelgiumBelgium07-03-1714Spanish NetherlandsAustrian Netherlands
Treaty of Rastatt
BelizeGuatemala | Belize15-09-1821New Spain Captaincy General of GuatemalaFirst Mexican Empire Guatemala
Guatemala part of 1st Mexican Empire. Then later got independence and creation of Federal Republic o...
BoliviaBolivia06-08-1825Viceroyalty of the Río de la PlataBolivian Republic
Bolivian war of independence
ChileChile12-02-1818Captaincy General of ChileState of Chile
Chilean wars of independence
ColombiaColombia17-12-1819Viceroyalty of New GranadaGran Colombia
Bolívar's campaign to liberate New Granada
Costa RicaCosta Rica15-09-1821New Spain | Captaincy General of GuatemalaFirst Mexican Empire | Costa Rica
Costa Rica declared its independence from Spain in 1821, declared its independence from the First Me...
CubaCuba10-10-1868Captaincy General of CubaCuba
Cuba's independence from Spain led directly to an occupation by the United States. (The 1898 Treaty ...
Dominican RepublicDominican Republic15-07-1865Captaincy General of Santo Domingo | (Spanish occupation of the Dominican Republic)Second Dominican Republic
Spain ceded the island to France in the Peace of Basel. Spain recaptured the eastern portion of Sant...
EcuadorEcuador24-05-1822Viceroyalty of New GranadaEcuador
Ecuadorian War of Independence
El SalvadorEl Salvador15-09-1821New Spain | Captaincy General of GuatemalaFirst Mexican Empire | El Salvador
El Salvador declared its independence from Spain in 1821, declared its independence from the First M...
Equatorial GuineaEquatorial Guinea12-10-1968Spanish GuineaEquatorial Guinea
Decolonisation of Africa
GuamGuam11-04-1899Spanish Empire Captaincy General of Puerto Rico | Spanish East IndiesGuam
Treaty of Paris (1898)
GuatemalaGuatemala | Belize15-09-1821New Spain | Captaincy General of GuatemalaFirst Mexican Empire Guatemala
Guatemala declared its independence from Spain in 1821, declared its independence from the First Mex...
HaitiHaiti1795Captaincy General of Santo DomingoSaint-Domingue
Peace of Basel, ceded eastern portion to France
HondurasHonduras15-09-1821New Spain | Captaincy General of GuatemalaFirst Mexican Empire Honduras
Hondruas declared its independence from Spain in 1821, declared its independence from the First Mexi...
ItalyCampania | Calabria | Apulia | Basilicata | Abruzzo | Molise | Lazio 07-03-1714Kingdom of Naples | (Spanish viceroyalty) Spanish EmpireKingdom of Naples | (Ruled by the Austrian monarchy)
Treaty of Rastatt
LuxembourgLuxembourg07-03-1714Spanish NetherlandsAustrian Netherlands
Treaty of Rastatt
MexicoMexico15-09-1821New SpainFirst Mexican Empire
Mexican War of Independence
MicronesiaFederated States of Micronesia | Marshall Islands | Northern Mariana Islands | Palau11-02-1899Spanish East IndiesGerman New Guinea
Spain sold other smaller islands to Germany in the German–Spanish Treaty.
Morocco07-04-1956 | 30-06-1969Spainsh protectorate in Morocco | IfniMorocco | Sidi Ifni Province
Decolonisation of Africa
NetherlandsNetherlands30-01-1648Spanish NetherlandsDutch Republic
Peace of Münster
NicaraguaNicaragua15-09-1821New Spain | Captaincy General of GuatemalaFirst Mexican Empire | Nicaragua
Nicaragua declared its independence from Spain in 1821, declared its independence from the First Mex...
Northern Mariana IslandsFederated States of Micronesia | Marshall Islands | Northern Mariana Islands | Palau11-02-1899Spanish East IndiesGerman New Guinea
Spain sold other smaller islands to Germany in the German–Spanish Treaty.
PalauFederated States of Micronesia | Marshall Islands | Northern Mariana Islands | Palau11-02-1899Spanish East IndiesGerman New Guinea
Spain sold other smaller islands to Germany in the German–Spanish Treaty.
PanamaPanama28-11-1821Viceroyalty of New GranadaPanama
Independence of Panama (Bloodless revolution)
ParaguayParaguay14-05-1811Viceroyalty of the Río de la PlataFirst Republic of Paraguay
May Revolution part of Spanish American wars of independence
PeruPeru28-07-1821Viceroyalty of PeruProtectorate of Peru
Peruvian War of Independence
PhilippinesPhilippines12-06-1898Captaincy General of PhilippinesFirst Philippine Republic
The Philippines were transferred from Spanish control to US control as part of the Treaty of Paris i...
PortugalPortugal01-12-1640Iberian UnionKingdom of Portugal and the Algarves
Treaty of Lisbon
Puerto Rico11-04-1899Spanish Empire | Captaincy General of Puerto Rico | Spanish East IndiesPuerto Rico
Treaty of Paris (1898)
TaiwanTaiwan1642Spanish FormosaDutch Formosa
Ceded to the Dutch Republic during the Eighty Years' War.
United StatesArkansas | Iowa | Missouri | Kansas | Oklahoma | Nebraska | Minnesota | Louisiana | New Mexico | Texas | North Dakota | South Dakota | Wyoming | Montana | Colorado | Canada Alberta | Saskatchewan 21-03-1801Spanish Empire (Louisiana)French First Republic Louisiana
The Treaty of Aranjuez granted France possession of Spain's New World province Louisiana (for the se...
UruguayUruguay1811Viceroyalty of the Río de la PlataUruguay
Uruguay gained independence from Spain, was annexed by the Empire of Brazil, then regained independe...
VenezuelaVenezuela05-07-1811Captaincy General of VenezuelaFirst Republic of Venezuela
Venezuelan wars of independence
Western SaharaWestern Sahara26-02-1976Spanish SaharaSahrawi Arab Democratic Republic
Decolonisation of Africa
showing: 36 rows

Sources