Ohio sits in the US Midwest, linking the country's Northeast to the Midwest. The state has one of the most central locations in the country with the 10th largest highway network. It's also just a day's drive within 50% of all of North America's population.
Ohio has an interesting history, and despite being only the 34th largest state, it is the 7th most populous and 10th most densely populated in the country. Still, it has one of the lowest growth rates in the nation, growing at a rate of just 0.67%, which ranks 43rd in the country.
The last official Census occurred in 2010, showing Ohio had a population of 11,536,504. This number has increased slightly to 11,548,087 in 2015, representing a very slight growth rate.
While Ohio's growth is slow, it's still ahead of the rest of the country. Ohio has a population density of 282.3 people per square mile, ranking 10th in the nation, with a total land area of 44,825 square miles, which ranks 34th.
Ohio's population is spread throughout the state with many major cities. Columbus, the capital, has the highest population with 850,000 residents, followed by Cleveland (388,072), Cincinnati (298,550), Toledo (298,550) and Akron (197,542).
Interestingly, the cities are wildly different when it comes to demographics and growth. While Columbus is growing rapidly at a rate of 10% every decade, Cleveland, by comparison, is losing people at an alarming rate. In 1950, more than 900,000 people lived in Cleveland, and its population is declining at a rate similar to decaying cities like Detroit.
The most populated county in Ohio is Franklin County at 1,291,981 residents in its boundaries, with Cuyahoga County coming in at a close second place with 1,248,514 residents. However, Cuyahoga has a 2% rate of loss of population in recent years.
The median age across the population in Ohio is approximately 39.3 years of age. When it comes to the ratio of females to males, Ohio has 51.1% females and 48.9% males.
In terms of preferred religions through the state's population, 73% of the population is affiliated with a Christian based faith, 4% are affiliated with non-Christian based faiths, and 22% are unaffiliated with any faith in particular.
Ohio was part of the Territory Northwest of the River Ohio, established in 1787 and commonly known as the Northwest Territory. Besides present-day Ohio, it included what are now Indiana, Illinois, Michigan, Wisconsin, and northeastern Minnesota. In 1800, with the creation of Indiana Territory, the Northwest Territory was reduced essentially to present-day Ohio, a small portion of southeastern Indiana, and the eastern half of lower Michigan. Ohio became a separate territory in 1802 and was admitted as a State on March 1, 1803, with its present boundaries except for a much-disputed strip along the northwestern border. This strip was governed by Michigan Territory until finally ceded to Ohio in 1836.
In 1790 the Northwest Territory had no census coverage. The 1800 census enumerated population in much of present-day Ohio and in a portion of southeastern Indiana; the total excludes the then Wayne County, nearly all of whose population was in present-day Michigan. The 1810, 1820, and 1830 censuses covered all of present-day Ohio except for the disputed northwestern strip, which was enumerated as part of Michigan.
According to the most recent ACS, the racial composition of Ohio was:
In 1800, the population of Ohio was recorded at 45,365 but like most states in the country, an explosion in numbers was just over the horizon. Ten years later in 1810, the Census of that year showed that the figures had leaped by over 400% to 230,760. This was the biggest rise in Ohio population on a census by census basis but further impressive growth was to follow through the decades.
By the start of the 20th century, the number of people in Ohio had climbed to 4,157,545 and impressive percentage increases were experienced for much of the rest of the century. From 1970 onwards, however, growth started to slow down gradually, although it is still increasing, as evidenced by the rise reported in the 2010 census.
The question for the 2020 Census is whether Ohio's population can rise above 12 million. If a similar rise to that seen between 2000 and 2010 occurs, then it won’t make it. But population statistics in Ohio are sometimes a bit up and down – in the 10 years between 1990 and 2000, population rose by more than 4%, and if that rise was replicated between 2010 and 2020, it might just make it past 12 million in time for the next census.
It's currently estimated that Ohio will continue its very slow growth, not even breaking 11.7 million between 2020 and 2030.
Ohio has one of the lowest Hispanic populations in the country based on percentages. The majority of Ohio's Hispanic residents are Mexican American and live in the Columbus and Toledo. It is ranked among the bottom 10 states when it comes to the percentage of Hispanics compared to the total population of the state. Ohio is ranked 17th out of 50 states for its African American population, which primarily reside in the state's major metropolitan areas. Approximately 4.1% of the state's residents were foreign-born.
Today, nearly one-third of Ohio's population under the age of 1 belongs to a minority group. The largest ancestry groups are: German (26.5%), Irish (14.5%), English (9.0%), Slavic countries including Poland, Russia and Croatia (8.0%), Italian (6.4%), French (2.5%) and Scottish (1.9%).
Using data from the 2010 Census and estimates from the Census Bureau taken in 2015, Ohio's counties have shown population increases and decreases through the 5-year period. The highest population increase was recorded in the central county of Delaware, which had a growth rate of 10.2%. The neighboring county of Franklin, located to the south of Delaware County, had the next highest rate of growth at 7.32%, followed by the southwestern county of Warren at 5.13%. Other counties, including Woods, Holmes, Union, and Miami saw smaller growth rates.
Some counties in the state saw population declines, with the majority of the largest declines being reported along the eastern border of the state. Carroll County had the largest loss in population during the 5-year period, at 3.52%. Other counties that had smaller populations in 2015 when compared to 2010 include Scioto at 3.4%, Jefferson at 3.25%, and Gallia at 3.03%, amongst others.
Black or African American
Two or more races
Native Hawaiian or Pacific Islander
Average Family Size
Average Household Size
Rate of Home Ownership
Less Than 9th Grade
9th to 12th Grade
High School Graduate
High School Graduation Rate
The highest rate of high school graduation is among white people with a rate of 80.1%.
The highest rate of bachelors degrees is among asian people with a rate of 51.46%.
Other Indo-European Languages
Asian and Pacific Island Languages
92.66% of Ohio residents speak only English, while 7.34% speak other languages. The non-English language spoken by the largest group is Other Indo-European, which is spoken by 2.67% of the population.
Overall Poverty Rate
Male Poverty Rate
Female Poverty Rate
The race most likely to be in poverty in Ohio is Islander, with 43.25% below the poverty level.
The race least likely to be in poverty in Ohio is White, with 12.19% below the poverty level.
The poverty rate among those that worked full-time for the past 12 months was 2.35%. Among those working part-time, it was 16.67%, and for those that did not work, the poverty rate was 21.2%.
Overall Marriage Rate
Male Marriage Rate
Female Marriage Rate
The age group where males are most likely to be married is Over 65, while the female age group most likely to be married is 45-54.
Second Gulf War
First Gulf War
World War II
Less Than 9th Grade
High School Graduate
Bachelors or Greater
Veteran Poverty Rate
Veteran Disability Rate
Labor Force Participation
Non citizens include legal permanent residents (green card holders), international students, temporary workers, humanitarian migrants, and illegal immigrants.
Born in Ohio
95.29% of Ohio residents were born in the United States, with 74.89% having been born in Ohio. 2.22% of residents are not US citizens. Of those not born in the United States, the largest percentage are from Asia.