Brownsville is located in Cameron County, Texas in South Texas near the Mexican border. The city is part of the cross-border Brownsville-Metamoros conurbation which has an estimated population of 1.13 million. Brownsville is one of the most southern cities in the United States.
Brownsville has one of the highest shares of Hispanic residents in the United States. The Pew Research Center reports that metro Brownsville has about 373,000 Hispanic residents or almost 89% of its population which ranks 28th in the country. Almost 97% of Hispanic residents in Brownsville are Mexican and 0.8% are Puerto Rican. About 30% of people in Brownsville were born outside of the U.S.
Brownsville has one of the country's highest poverty rates with a median household income of $24,500. Nearly 36% of the population and 32% of families live below the federal poverty line. This includes almost half of people under 18. This makes Brownsville the second poorest urban area in the United States after the McAllen metro area.
Brownsville remains the most populous city in the Rio Grande Valley and its population more than doubled from 85,000 in 1980 to 175,000 in 2010. The city is now working on a comprehensive housing program to address its massively growing population. By 2030, Brownsville is expected to add another 10,000 people.