Berlin's 2023 population is now estimated at 3,573,938. In 1950, the population of Berlin was 3,337,621. Berlin has grown by 3,188 in the last year, which represents a 0.09% annual change. These population estimates and projections come from the latest revision of the UN World Urbanization Prospects. These estimates represent the Urban agglomeration of Berlin, which typically includes Berlin's population in addition to adjacent suburban areas.
Berlin is the capital of Germany and one of Germany's 16 states. It is also the largest city in Germany. It is also the second-most populous city proper and the 7th most populous urban region in the European Union. Berlin is located in northeastern Germany along the River Spree. In 2016, the population of Berlin is estimated at 3.5 million.
Berlin has a population of 3.5 million in 2016, up slightly from 3.4 million in 2014. The city is the center of the Berlin-Brandenburg Metropolitan Region with a population of 5.8 million people from more than 180 countries. The Berlin urban area goes beyond the city limits with a population of approximately 3.7 million. In 2016, the city had a population density of 3,809 people per square kilometer.
There is a long history of migration into Berlin. In 1685, after the revocation of the Edict of Nantes to promote civil unity in France, Berlin created the Edict of Potsdam to guarantee tax-free status and religious freedom to French Huguenot refugees for a decade. During the 1960s and 70s, asylum politics and immigration in West Berlin created massive waves of immigration.
There are many foreign-born populations in Berlin today, with countries of birth that include:
Other sizable foreign-born populations include people from Lebanon, China, Thailand, Macedonia, Netherlands, Iran, Sweden, Portugal, Hungary, Israel, Brazil, South Korea, Latvia, Japan, Denmark, Republic of Kosovo, India, and Syria. In 2010, 13.5% of the population were of foreign nationality from 190 countries. In 2008, it was estimated that up to 30% of the population was foreign-born.
About 60% of Berlin's population have no registered religious affiliation. Thus the city is often called the atheist capital of Europe. Large religious denominations in Berlin include Protestants (19%), Roman Catholics (9%), Muslims (8%), other Christian denominations (2.5%) and other religions (1%).
Berlin's history was first documented in the 1200s, although recent evidence suggests that the city may be even older. It became capital of Prussia in 1701, followed by the German Empire (1871), the Weimar Republic (1919) and the Third Reich (1933). In the 1920s, it was the third largest city in the world. After the end of WWII, Berlin along with the German state was divided into East Berlin (the capital of the German Democratic Republic) or East Germany, and West Berlin, a political exclave and de facto state of the Federal Republic of Germany. The city once more became the capital of all of Germany after reunification in 1990.
The Berlin Senate predicts the city's population will grow slightly to 3.75 million by 2030, with a 20% increase for the 6 to 18-year-old age group and the average age increasing somewhat to about 44. In 2013, however, statisticians found that the country has 1.5 million fewer people than believed, with Berlin having 180,000 fewer residents.
Historically, the population has changed significantly over the years in Berlin. In 1250, the population was barely over 1,000 residents. By 1576 the population had grown to 12,000 before dropping down to 9,000 just twenty years later in the early 1600s. This decline continued into 1648, reaching as low as 6,000 inhabitants. 1685 however, brought a serious increase of population, showing over 17,000 now residing in the area. From this point forward, the city continued to multiply in numbers, reaching 1 million by 1880 and peaking in the 1930s in the 4 million range. Of course, the wars would change this considerably, and the records indicate a final drop to 2.8 million before continuing on a positive growth track and maintaining a population of at least 3 million individuals.