8,575,779
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Quebec Population 2021

Quebec is a province located in east-central Canada. Quebec is the largest province in Canada in terms of area and the second-largest administrative division after Nunavut. The province is bordered by Ontario, James Bay and Hudson Bay to the west, Hudson Strait and Ungava Bay to the north, the Gulf of Saint Lawrence and the provinces of New Brunswick and Newfoundland and Labrador to the east. It also shares a border with the U.S. states New York, Vermont, New Hampshire and Maine and maritime borders with Nova Scotia, Prince Edward Island and Nunavut.

Quebec has an estimated population of 8.18 million, which makes it the second-most populous province in Canada. This compares to the population of 7.9 million at the 2011 census. The province has a population density of 8 people per square kilometer, or 15 per square mile. Quebec accounts for 24% of Canada's total population.

Cities in Quebec

  • Montreal is the most populous city in Quebec
  • Quebec City is the capital of Quebec and its second most populous city. It is also the 10th most populous city in Canada and known for its historic Quebec fortified city walls, which are the only such walls left in northern North America.

Quebec Demographics

In 2011, the racial composition of Quebec was: 87.2% white, 11% visible minority groups and 1.4% Aboriginal (1.1% First Nations, 0.5% Metis, 0.2% Inuit). There are also a large number of Indian bands who refuse to participate in the census for political reasons about the question of aboriginal sovereignty. The larger groups are the Mohawk Indian reserves.The visible minority groups include:

  • Black: 3.2%
  • Arab: 2.2%
  • Latin American: 1.5%
  • South Asian: 1.1%
  • Chinese: 1.1%
  • Southeast Asian: 0.9%
  • Filipino: 0.4%
  • West Asian: 0.3%
  • Korean: 0.1%
  • Japanese: 0.1%

Quebec has a smaller number visible minority groups than British Columbia, Alberta, Ontario and Manitoba and most visible minorities live in the Montreal metropolitan area.

The most common ethnic origins are:

  • Canadian: 60.1%
  • French: 28.8%
  • Irish: 5.5%
  • Italian: 4.0%
  • English: 3.3%
  • North American Indian: 3.0%
  • Scottish: 2.7%
  • Quebecer: 1.9%
  • German: 1.8%
  • Chinese: 1.2% -Haitian: 1.2%
  • Spanish: 0.97%
  • Jewish: 0.96%
  • Greek: 0.89%
  • Polish: 0.84%
  • Lebanese: 0.83%

Other ethnic origins include, in order of size: Portuguese, Belgian, East Indian, Romanian, Russian, Moroccan, American, Metis, Vietnamese, Acadian, Ukrainian, African, Filipino, Algerian, British Isles, Armenian, Dutch, Hungarian, Swiss, Egyptian, Salvadoran, Syrian, Colombian, Mexican, Berbers, Inuit, Iranian, Peruvian, Jamaican, Pakistani, Chilean, Turk, Austrian, Sri Lankan, Congolese, Cambodian, and Welsh.

Quebec is the only province in Canada with a French-speaking majority and where English-speakers are an officially recognized minority group. Francophones account for 81% of the total population, although their birth rate is very low.

Interestingly, Quebec has one of the world's most important founder populations, the Quebec Founder Population, which is important to medical genetic research. This population arose from an influx of people into Quebec from France during the 17th to mid-18th century. About 7 million Canadians are descended from these original 2,600 colonists.

In 2011, life expectancy in Quebec reached a new high of 83.2 years for women and 78.6 years for men, which is the third-longest life expectancy in Canada after British Columbia and Ontario.

Quebec Population Growth

Quebec has a fertility rate higher than the Canadian average at 1.69 children per woman, but this is still far below the replacement rate of 2.1. Compounding this is the fact that Quebec's population is aging. Along with this, the province is set to lower its immigration targets to better integrate new immigrants and make sure they can function and prosper. Around 55,000 immigrants came to Quebec in 2012, and the government believes this is too many. The target for 2014 was lowered to 49,000 to 52,500 and that target has been reduced again for the years of 2017 through 2020.

All of these factors will hold back growth in the province, but Quebec is projected to reach a population of 9.2 million by 2056.

Quebec Facts

  • Quebec is the only province where French is the only provincial official language with a mostly French-speaking population.
  • Quebec has the highest number of international adoptions in Canada with 42% of all international adoptions carried out in the province.
  • The word Quebec comes from an Algonquin word meaning "it narrows," in reference to the narrowing of the St. Lawrence River near Quebec City.
  • The Château Frontenac in Quebec is the world's most photographed hotel.
  • Quebec's motto is 'Je me souviens', or 'I remember.' No one actually remembers the meaning of the phrase, or what Quebec is remembering and it has been debated for decades.
  • Lines on the road dividing the direction of traffic was first seen near the border of Quebec in 1930.
Date Population
2020 Q48,575,779
2020 Q38,574,571
2020 Q28,572,054
2020 Q18,556,650
2019 Q48,540,429
City 2016 Population 2011 Population
Montréal1,704,6901,649,520
Québec531,902516,576
Laval422,993401,553
Gatineau276,245265,349
Longueuil239,700231,409
Sherbrooke161,323154,601
Saguenay145,949144,746
Lévis143,414138,769
Trois Rivières134,413131,338
Terrebonne111,575106,322
Saint Jean Sur Richelieu95,11492,394
Brossard85,72179,273
Repentigny84,28582,000
Drummondville75,42371,852
Saint Jérôme74,34668,456
Granby66,22263,433
Blainville56,86353,510
Saint Hyacinthe55,64853,236
Mirabel50,51341,957
Shawinigan49,34950,060
Dollard Des Ormeaux48,89949,637
Rimouski48,66446,860
Châteauguay47,90645,904
Mascouche46,69242,491
Victoriaville46,13043,462
Saint Eustache44,00844,154
Rouyn Noranda42,33441,012
Boucherville41,67140,753
Salaberry De Valleyfield40,74540,077
Vaudreuil Dorion38,11733,305
Sorel Tracy34,75534,600
Saint Georges32,51331,173
Val D'or32,49131,862
Côte Saint Luc32,44832,321
Pointe Claire31,38030,790
Alma30,77630,904
Sainte Julie29,88130,044
Chambly29,12025,571
Saint Constant27,35924,980
Boisbriand26,88426,816
Magog26,66925,692
Saint Bruno De Montarville26,39426,107
Sainte Thérèse25,98926,025
Thetford Mines25,40325,709
Sept ÎLes25,40025,686
La Prairie24,11023,357
Beloeil22,45820,783
L'assomption22,42920,065
Saint Lambert21,86121,555
Baie Comeau21,53622,113
Varennes21,25720,994
Candiac21,04719,876
Saint Lin Laurentides20,78617,463
Joliette20,48419,621
Westmount20,31219,931
Mont Royal20,27619,503
Kirkland20,15121,253
Saint Lazare19,88919,295
Rivière Du Loup19,50719,447
Beaconsfield19,32419,505
Dorval18,98018,208
Saint Augustin De Desmaures18,82018,141
Mont Saint Hilaire18,58518,200
Sainte Marthe Sur Le Lac18,07415,689
Deux Montagnes17,49617,552
Saint Basile Le Grand17,05916,736
Sainte Catherine17,04716,762
L'ancienne Lorette16,54316,745
Saint Colomban16,01913,080
Sainte Sophie15,69013,375
Gaspé14,56815,163
Pincourt14,55814,305
Sainte Anne Des Plaines14,42114,535
Matane14,31114,462
Dolbeau Mistassini14,25014,384
Mont Laurier14,11613,779
Rosemère13,95814,294
Saint Charles Borromée13,79113,321
Lavaltrie13,65713,267
Cowansville13,65612,489
Sainte Marie13,56512,889
Mercier13,11511,584
Bécancour13,03112,438
Prévost13,00212,171
Sainte Adèle12,91912,137
Beauharnois12,88412,011
Lachute12,86212,551
Amos12,82312,671
Saint Amable12,16710,930
Les ÎLes De La Madeleine12,01012,291
Val Des Monts11,58210,420
Montmagny11,25511,491
Rawdon11,05710,416
La Tuque11,00111,227
L'île Perrot10,75610,503
Marieville10,72510,094
Cantley10,6999,888
Notre Dame De L'île Perrot10,65410,620
Saint Félicien10,23810,278
Saint Sauveur10,2319,881
Sainte Agathe Des Monts10,22310,115
Saint Raymond10,2219,615
Roberval10,04610,227

Cities in Quebec