Egypt, known officially as the Arab Republic of Egypt, is a transcontinental country which spans the southwest corner of Asia and the northeast corner of Africa. This is made possible through a land bridge formed by the Sinai Peninsula. Most of Egypt is located in North Africa. It is bordered by both land and sea: the Mediterranean is to its North, Israel and the Gaza Strip to the Northeast, the Gulf of Aqaba to its East, the Red Sea to the East and South, Libya to the West and Sudan to the South.
Ethnic Egyptians account for 91% of the total population. The largest ethnic minorities include the Turks, Greeks, Abazas, and Bedouin Arab tribes in the Sinai Peninsula and the deserts to the east, as well as the Siwis in the Siwa Oasis and the Nubian people along the Nile.
The official language is Arabic, while other widely understood and spoken languages by the upper classes include English and French.
Approximately 2.7 million Egyptians are found living abroad, as estimated by the International Organization for Migration. These include the Arab countries, like Saudi Arabia, Libya, Jordan and Kuwait, where 70% of the Egyptian immigrants reside. The rest of the 30% inhabit Europe and North America (90,000 in Italy, 110,000 in Canada and 318,000 in the United States). Constituting 91%, Ethnic Egyptians are the leading group of Egypt’s population.
Egypt Religion, Economy and Politics
Life expectancy at birth in Egypt in 2012 was estimated at 72.93 years for the total population, with 70.33 years for the male population, and 75.66 years for the female population. The birth rate was of 24.22 births for 1000 people, and the death rate of 4.8 deaths for 1000 people.
In 2018, the median age of the population reached 23.9 years, with a total life expectancy of 73 years, according to the World Factbook. We can see a slow, but seemingly consistent improvement in this area as time passes.
According to estimates made in 2012, middle-aged people of 25 to 54 years dominate the age structure at 38.1%, with the least being from 65 years and above at 4.7%. Sex ratio in 2011 was calculated as: at birth (1.05 males/females), under 15 years (1.05 males/females), from 15 to 64 years (1.03 males/females) and 65 years and above (0.82 males/females).
As of 2017 estimates, this population age structure is now at 37.6% 25-54 years of age, 4.22% for 65 plus years of age, and a staggering 52.23 % of the population is under the age of 25. That's a slight increase in the working age population and a slight decrease in the elderly population.
Total education expenditures in 2008 constituted 3.8% of GDP, while health expenditures made in 2009 amounted 6.4% of GDP). In 2012, net migration was -0.2 migrants for 1000 people. The literacy rate calculated in 2010 gave a figure of 72% of the total population; 63.5% females and 80.3% males.
In 2010, Egypt’s urban population constituted 43.4% of its urban population. Currently, the rate of urbanization is 2.1% at an annual rate of change. 99.6% of the total population’s ethnicity was Egyptian, while others amounted to 0.4% in the 2006 census. The dominating religion in the country is that of Islam at 90% (mostly Sunnis); Christianity is at 10% while Judaism is practiced by fewer than 200 people. The Bahai community of fewer than 2000 individuals is not even recognized by the government.
Egypt Population History
From 1970 to 2010, there was a population boom due to advancements in agricultural productivity and medical fields, which were made possible due to [the Green Revolution](https://www.jpost.com/Jerusalem-Report/The-Region/Egypts-other-green-revolution). When Napoleon Bonaparte invaded Egypt in 1798, the country’s population amounted to only 3 million. Over the years, the population has increased and decreased, due to erratic fluctuation patterns.
The population growth rate during every five years is given as: 1980 to 1985 was estimated at 2.39%, 1985 to 1990 at 2.30%, 1990 to 1995 at 1.76%, 1995 to 2000 at 1.72%, 2000 to 2005 at 1.85% and during 2005 to 2010 at 1.78%. Life expectancy at birth rose by 14.7 years from the period 1980 to 1985, to the period 2005 to 2010, increasing from 57.6 years to 72.3 years. The infant mortality rate was estimated at 101.1 infant deaths per 1000 live births; however this number has been decreasing as the years have progressed. In 2018, the infant mortality rate is at 19 deaths per 1000 live births.