Romania Population 2023 (Live)


Romania reached its peak population in 1990 when the population was 24.49 million people. Since then, Romania has experienced a population decline that puts the population at about 19.24 million people for 2020. Romania’s population is expected to continue to shrink, reaching 11.88 million people by the end of the century.

Romania’s current population growth rate is -0.66%, meaning that the population decreased by about 126,866 people from 2019 to 2020. This is a combination of negative net migration and a fertility rate below the population replacement rate of 1.62 births per woman.

Between 2007 and 2015, about 3.5 million Romanians have gone abroad to escape the poverty and corruption in Romania. Many of those leaving Romania are highly educated and seeking better opportunities elsewhere. This greatly impacts Romania’s already struggling economy.

Population Rank
Growth Rate
2023 World Percentage
Land Area
The current population of Romania is 19,809,833 based on projections of the latest United Nations data. The UN estimates the July 1, 2023 population at 19,892,812.

Romania Growth Rate

Romania Population 2023 (Live)

Romania Population Clock

Romania Population (as of 10/1/2023)19,809,833
Last UN Estimate (July 1, 2023)19,892,812
Births per Day587
Deaths per Day782
Migrations per Day-697
Net Change per Day-892
Population Change Since Jan. 1-244,408

Components of Population Change

One birth every 2.45 minutes
One death every 1.83 minutes
One emigrant every 2.07 minutes
Net loss of one person every 1.62 minutes

Romania Population Clock

Romania Area and Population Density

Romania's borders encapsulate a total of 92,046 square miles (238,931 square kilometers) of area. When calculated with the current population numbers, we find a population density of approximately 213 people per square mile (82 people per square kilometer). This earns the country 96th rank in overall population density.

Largest Cities in Romania

The capital of Romania is Bucharest and this city has a population of 1,877,155 individuals. The World Factbook explains that a fairly even population distribution can be found throughout most of the country.

Romania Population Density Map

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Romania Population by Year (Historical)

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Romania Population by Year (Projections)

Romania Population Pyramid 2023

Romania Median Age







Romania Population by Age

There are people over age 18 in Romania.

Census Years

Romania Population Pyramid

As of early 2014, the population of Romania was around 21,595,302, a slight decrease from the estimated 21,668,721 in 2013 and from the 2011 population estimates when the figure stood at 21,801,942. Romania's population is apparently decreasing at a rate of over 0.32% per year. In 2018, this yearly loss rate rose to .50%, indicating a more dramatic decline over the last year. According to historical figures, Romania actually hit its population peak in the early 90s, when there were 23,372,101 people in Romania.

Demographics of Romania

Romania is a small country that is constituted of 84.1% Ethnic Romanians from its total population while a small Hungarian minority makes up 5.4% of the population demographics.

The age structure of Romania is skewed heavily towards its inhabitants in the 25-54 year age group. They make up around 46.3% of the population. The younger generation in the 0-25 year age bracket also has a significant majority in the country with 24.95% of the population growing with them. These are encouraging numbers, which show that Romania has a thriving workforce and an upcoming generation available for its development, provided it can create suitable opportunities for its inhabitants to help develop it further in the long run. Moreover, the population of senior citizens in Romania (people 55 years and over) also make up a significant portion of the country's population at 27.8%. This population spread also shows that Romania has a very uniform distribution of its population in all age brackets except the 25-54 year olds.

The sex ratio is also uniquely uniform in Romania with the men and the women sharing almost equal numbers in the country. From 0-64 years old, the ratio is slightly tipped in favor of the males. There are 1.06 males for each female, but this changes to almost a 1:1 ratio when we look at the 55-64 year age structure. From 64 years and beyond, the sex ratio is skewed in favor of the women as the ratio then is 0.68 male per 1 female.

All in all, Romania has a roughly equal distribution of males and females in its population, which in turn is very evenly divided amongst its age groups. With suitable opportunities and economic growth, Romania can certainly develop itself more and enhance its image around the world. It is showing steady signs of improvement over the years, and with an able workforce available at its disposable, it can certainly become a country of much importance in the region.

The official language used is Romanian, with additional use of Hungarian and Romani in some communities.

Romania Religion, Economy and Politics

In terms of religion, although the country is officially secular, over 80% of the population adhere to the Eastern Orthodox, with the Protestant and Roman Catholic sects both coming in with under 10% of the population.

Romania has a diverse and highly skilled labor force and has been doing very well in recent years- ranking as the 40th strongest economy in the world. In addition to their consistent economic growth domestically, Romania has also become a country sought after by foreign investors. The main exports from Romania include vehicles, machinery, chemicals, and electronic products. Their nominal GDP in 2018 was $240 billion US dollars.

Romania Population History

Romania became an independent nation in 1877, after long being run by the Ottoman Empire. The country became a kingdom in 1881. In 1914, King Carol died, ending the country's alliance with Germany and Austria and Romania joined the Allied forces in World War I. At the end of the war, a peace agreement was made that almost doubled the population of Romania in 1918. An earthquake killed 1500 in the city of Bucharest in 1977. The rate of growth began declining from 1% around that time until Romania began having a negative growth rate in the early 1990s.

Romania Population Rank 2023
Area (km²)
2023 Growth Rate
$186.69 Bn

Romania - General Info

  1. National Institute of Statistics
  2. World Population Prospects (2022 Revision) - United Nations population estimates and projections.
  3. GeoNames