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Micronations 2023

A micronation is a recently self-proclaimed state that claims independence but is not formally recognized as an independent state by most United Nations countries. A micronation is not the same as a microstate, which is a tiny, but fully fledged country that has its own formally recognized government, such as the Vatican or the South Pacific country of Tuvalu. Nor are they the same as non-sovereign territories, whose governments are similarly unrecognized but which tend to be much larger in land area and population. Micronations are usually short-lived, lasting for only a few hours to a few years, and are often the product of one individual or group claiming sovereignty. That said, more than fifty micronations existed in 2023, with some estimates placing the total as high as 100-400 micronations.

Micronations may issue their own currency and passports to "citizens." However, these passports and money are rarely recognized by other sovereign states and are of no value outside of the micronation.

Reasons Micronations are Founded

Micronations are often founded by people who support a different political ideology than the current government. The Republic of Minerva was an attempt to build a libertarian haven on a human-made island near Fiji in 1972. The island was soon destroyed in a takeover by the nearby country of Tonga. The Free Republic of Liberland is another attempt at creating a libertarian haven, this time in Eastern Europe on the border of Croatia and Serbia. No country recognizes it formally except for Somaliland, an autonomous region in Somalia.

Some micronations are created by people who believe that they have a historical claim to the land. For example, the Crown Dependency of Forvik in Scotland is a micronation based on the claim that the area, located in the Shetland Islands, does not legally belong to the United Kingdom.

Still other micronations are created in protest against an unpopular government decision or policy. For example, the Principality of Hutt River, located in Australia, was established in 1970 by Leonard Casley in protest against wheat production quotas.

Modern Micronations

Some micronations have become sites of tourism and merchandise sales, such as the Conch Republic in Key West, Florida. The airport in Key West even boasts a sign saying “Welcome to the Conch Republic,” even though the micronation never attained formal recognition. Tourists buy t-shirts and other merchandise to celebrate the micronation, mostly as a gimmick.

The internet has somewhat changed the face of micronations, as people are applying global communications technology to concerns about national borders and issues of statelessness. Alternatively, some micronations may forego physical territory entirely. Bit Nation was an attempt to create an international micronation with no borders or boundaries, and even issued passports to people who applied to become citizens.

Current Micronations by Host Country or Continent


NameYear FoundedDetails
Grand Duchy of Flandrensis2008Founded as a short-term hobby, Flandrensis eventually became active in raising awareness of climate change, particularly as it affects polar ice and glaciers.
Grand Duchy of Westarctica2001Founded by Travis McHenry, Westarctica claims most of Marie Byrd Land. The micronations Melchezidek and Talossa (q.v.) also assert ownership of this area.

Antigua and Barbuda

Kingdom of Redonda1865Redonda is a small, uninhabitable island south-west of Antigua. According to writer M. P. Shiel, Redonda was claimed by his father, with the consent of the British Colonial Office. Since 1967, the title of King of Redonda has been disputed, with multiple claimants.


Empire of Atlantium1981This progressive micronation claims a minuscule amount of territory in New South Wales, but advocates for the abolition of international borders, and free migration.
Grand Duchy of Avram1980sAvram does not claim any territory, and primarily exists as a micronational bank, based within Australia. The Australian government brought several lawsuits against Avram's founder, John Charlton Rudge, but the courts ruled that Rudge had committed no crimes and his banking activities were allowed to resume.
Province of Bumbunga1976Alarmed by the possibility of Australia becoming a republic, a monarchist declared his farm in Bumbunga, South Australia an independent state loyal to the Crown.
Murrawarri Republic2013The Muruwari people formed this micronation in Queensland and New South Wales as part of the Australian Indigenous Sovereignty movement
Principality of Snake Hill2003A family in New South Wales who were unable to afford their taxes seceded from Australia.
Principality of Wy2004During a long-running dispute with the local council over a building permit, Paul Delprat seceded from Mosman, a suburb of Sydney. He did not claim to have seceded from New South Wales or Australia, however. Wy is a supporter of art.
Sovereign Yidindji Government2013The Yidiny people, led by Murrumu Walubara Yidindji, formed this micronation in Queensland as part of the Australian Indigenous Sovereignty movement.


Republic of Kugelmugel1975An artist built a spherical residence in Katzelsdorf, resulting in a dispute with local authorities over construction permits for it. Four years later, the artist declared his unusual structure an independent state. In 1982, it was moved to its current location in the Prater, a large park in Leopoldstadt, Vienna, where it is maintained by the city as a tourist attraction. The republic has several hundred citizens (none of whom live in the building).


Principality of Islandia2018This crowdfunded micronation claims Coffee Caye, an uninhabited island near Belize City.

Bosnia and Herzegovina

Hajduk Republic of Mijat Tomić2002An owner of a motel on the Blidinje Plateau seceded from Herzegovina after a jurisdictional dispute between three local municipalities, naming his micronation after hajduk Mijat Tomić.


Kingdom of L'Anse-Saint-Jean1997By referendum, the citizens of L'Anse-Saint-Jean, Quebec, chose to declare the municipality a "municipal monarchy", as a way to promote tourism.
Republic of Rathnelly1967A Toronto neighborhood declared itself an independent republic during the celebration of Canada's centennial on July 1, 1967.The "Republic of Rathnelly" elected a queen and celebrates "Rathnelly Day" biennially.


Kingdom of Araucanía and Patagonia1873After the fall of the kingdom and death of Orélie-Antoine, the title of King of Patagonia passed between various French citizens. The current "king" is Frédéric Luz.
Glacier Republic2014In order to draw attention to the country's lack of legal protections for glaciers, Greenpeace declared Chile's ice sheets a micronation.

Czech Republic

Other World Kingdom1996A BDSM resort specializing in female dominance, located in a château in Černá, Žďár nad Sázavou District, claims to be an independent matriarchy.
Kingdom of Wallachia1997This micronation in Moravian Wallachia was founded as a joke. A leadership dispute eventually ended up in a Czech court.


Freetown Christiania1971Christiania is an intentional community and commune on the site of a former military base in Copenhagen. Known for its trade in cannabis, which is illegal in Denmark, the micronation was ranked in 2016 as the fourth most popular tourist attraction in Copenhagen.
Kingdom of Elleore1944A group of schoolteachers declared the independence of Elleore, an island in a fjord of Zealand, after they had purchased it for a summer camp. It is uninhabited, except during an annual gathering of the micronation's citizens.


Principality of Aigues-Mortes2010The city of Aigues-Mortes named itself a principality as a publicity stunt. Its claim is based on a local legend of Louis IX bestowing the title of prince on one of his squires, who was from the city.
Principality of Laàs en Béarn2015Alleging that it was neglected by the national government, the commune of Laàs seceded from France.
Holy Empire of Réunion1997Brazilian law students created this "parody of the French overseas department" of Réunion, south-west of Mauritius Island.
Republic of Saugeais1947While the prefect of Doubs was visiting the Saugeais, a valley in his department, a local hotel owner referred to a "Republic of Saugeais". Going along with the joke, the prefect asked for details about the non-existent nation, which the hotel owner promptly invented. The prefect responded by naming him President of the Republic of Saugeais. The micronation comprises eleven communes in Doubs.


Akhzivland1971A squatter in the ancient, abandoned village of Achziv slowly established a popular vacation spot. Annoyed by the encroachment of various government projects, he and his wife finally declared their haven independent. He then brought a lawsuit against the Israeli government, which resulted in the award of a 99-year lease to him, but not full legal recognition of his micronation. Akhzivland's founder died in 2018. Although he was survived by his wife, the subsequent status of the micronation was unclear.


Principality of Filettino2011Created by the mayor of Filettino in protest at the Italian government's austerity measure that reorganized the local government of towns with less than 1,000 residents.
Principality of Seborga1963Citing medieval documents, a resident of Seborga asserted that the town had been a sovereign state since 954 AD. Seborga does not claim to be exempt from Italian legal jurisdiction, however. Although the town's declaration that it is an independent nation is generally seen as a ploy to increase tourism, Seborga has been recognized by about twenty countries.


Republic of Užupis1997Užupis is a neighborhood in the Old Town of Vilnius which declared itself a republic. The dilapidated area has long been favored by artists. The micronation has an eccentric constitution, and has appointed ambassadors not only to countries, but also to other neighborhoods and cities, historical locations that no longer exist, and even concepts.

New Zealand

Republic of Whangamōmona1989Residents of Whangamōmona objected to the regional placement of their township after a restructuring of local government, and declared Whangamōmona a republic.

North Macedonia

Republic of Vevčani1991 and 2000Eleven days after the secession of Macedonia (now named North Macedonia) from Yugoslavia, residents of the village of Vevčani voted to become independent from Macedonia. The Macedonian government later allowed Vevčani to separate from Struga Municipality and become a municipality of its own.

South Korea

Naminara Republic2006Nami Island is home to the Naminara Republic, a self-declared micronation described as "a tourist destination that advocates the concept of a nation. On 20 July 2018, a retired M48 Patton tank was received from the Republic of Korea Armed Forces.


United Republics of Jämtland, Härjedalen, and Ravund1963The republics (Republic of Jämtland for short) base their claim of independence upon Jämtland's autonomy prior to 1178. Their objective is to promote Jämtlandic culture.
Royal Republic of Ladonia1996Lars Vilks created two sculptures in the Kullaberg nature reserve. When the art was discovered, the local council ruled that it should be removed, resulting in a legal battle. After he lost in court, Vilks declared an area around his sculptures independent.

United Kingdom

Sovereign State of Forvik2008Stuart "Captain Calamity" Hill squatted on Forewick Holm in Shetland. He declared it to be a Crown Dependency, claiming that Shetland had not been legally integrated into the United Kingdom after Christian I of Denmark pawned it to James III of Scotland in 1469.
Free Borough of Llanrwst1276 and 1947Llywelyn ap Gruffudd, Prince of Wales, declared the town of Llanrwst a "free borough", and not part of the Diocese of Llanelwy. This royal privilege was successfully defended against reversal by the Catholic Church for some decades.
Principality of Sealand1967Paddy Roy Bates took over HM Fort Roughs, a defunct Maunsell Fort built off the coast of Suffolk during World War II, and declared it an independent country. At the time, the fort was international waters. In 1978, Germany sent a diplomat to Sealand to negotiate with Bates for the release of a German citizen who claimed to be Sealand's prime minister, and had led a failed attack on the fort. Bates would thereafter claim that the dispatching of the emissary constituted recognition of Sealand by Germany. In 1987, the United Kingdom extended its territorial waters, which now encompass Sealand.

United States

Conch Republic1982Frustrated by a United States Border Patrol checkpoint on the only road into Key West, Florida, the city's leaders, including mayor Dennis Wardlow, humorously declared Key West independent. The republic later expanded its territorial claims to include a nearby area on the Florida mainland.
Maritime Republic of Eastport1998When Eastport temporarily was cut off from the rest of Annapolis, Maryland, by maintenance on a drawbridge, a group of residents of the neighborhood declared it independent, as a way to promote business.
Kingdom of EnenKio1994Mainly known as a front for financial fraud, this micronation claims as its territory Wake Island, a remote atoll in the Pacific Ocean that is a United States insular area, but is also claimed by the Marshall Islands. EnenKio has ties to Melchizedek (q.v.), another micronation.
Ganienkeh1974A group of Native Americans of the Mohawk tribe occupied an area near Moss Lake, in New York State, claiming it to be part of a far larger territory that had been illegally acquired from indigenous Americans in 1797. After years of negotiations with the state, the group agreed to move to an area near Altona. Issues of sovereignty remain unresolved.
Republic of Molossia1977This micronation existed only as a concept until its founder bought land in Nevada in 1998.
Most Serene Federal Republic of Montmartrec. 1965This republic, retroactively dated to 1636, encompasses the Theater District in the borough of Manhattan, in New York City. In the late 1970s, a dispute between Montmartre's founder and New York Telephone, over whether the micronation could be listed in the government pages of the phone book, ended up in front of the New York Public Service Commission. The commission vacillated, alternately issuing rulings in favor of each party, and listings for the republic did appear in at least a few editions of the New York Telephone book.
United Territories of the Sovereign Nation of The People's Republic of Slowjamastan2021A micronation in Imperial County, Southern California that was founded by slow jam DJ Randy Williams. It claims an empty, 11-acre plot of desert land along the California State Route 78 that Williams purchased for $19,000.
Washitaw Nation1990sThe Washitaw Nation is an African American group that defines itself ethnically, rather than by territory, akin to a Native American tribe. It is associated with the Moorish Science Temple of America, a religious sect. It is also considered part of the sovereign citizen movement, a category of people, primarily in the United States, who believe that various forms of government authority are illegitimate.
Zaqistan2005This micronation claims a small area in Utah.


Republic of Parva Domus Magna Quies1878This social organization declared itself an independent country. A residence in the Punta Carretas neighborhood of Montevideo, and the plot of land on which the building sits, constitute the micronation's territory.

Global/No Territory/No Host Country States

Space Kingdom of Asgardia2016Igor Ashurbeyli founded Asgardia, which has the objective of creating a colony in orbit that is an independent country. Under the Outer Space Treaty, no nation may lay claim to territory in space. A number of smaller countries are not parties to this treaty, however. Asgardia launched a small satellite in 2017, and claimed the space occupied by it as the micronation's territory.The satellite re-entered the atmosphere and burnt up in 2022 as was expected.
Empire of Austenasia2008Austenasia purports to be a successor to the Roman Empire. It was founded in a house, which now serves as the micronation's capital, in Sutton, a borough of Greater London, United Kingdom. Austenasia's claimed territory has been extended to other small properties around the world as new citizens have joined the micronation.
Elgaland-Vargaland1992This conceptual art project was created by Carl Michael von Hausswolff and Leif Elggren. The micronation claims international borders as its territory, as well as other "interstitial territories" such as Limbo, and counts all dead persons as its citizens. In 2007, Elgaland-Vargaland claimed to have annexed Isola di San Michele, in the Venetian Lagoon.
Free Republic of Liberland2015Vít Jedlička founded this micronation, which claims part of the land on the disputed border of Serbia and Croatia. Access to the area asserted to be Liberland is mostly controlled by Croatia. There are approximately 20 Liberland citizens on the territory as of August 2023.
Dominion of Melchizedek1990This source of financial fraud claims several Pacific islands, as well as a portion of Antarctica that has not been claimed by any recognized country, comprising most of Marie Byrd Land. (Two other micronations, Talossa and Westarctica, q.v., have also asserted control of this area in the Antarctic.) Melchezidek has been recognized by the Central African Republic.
Republic of Morac-Songhrati-Meads1877This micronation, also known as the Kingdom of Humanity, claims the Spratly Islands, an archipelago in the South China Sea which is the subject of a territorial dispute between several recognized countries as well
Nova Roma1998Nova Roma is an organization that seeks to recreate a "classical Roman" society. It subscribes to ancient Roman religion, holds competitions and re-enactments, and mints its own coinage. It is considered by some to be a micronation, though it holds no territory.
Nutopia1973John Lennon and Yoko Ono founded this "conceptual country", partly as a satirical response to the United States government's attempt to deport Lennon. Nutopia "has no land ... only people", and anyone may declare themselves a citizen.
Kingdom of Talossa1979An American teenager in Milwaukee, Wisconsin, created this micronation, the territory of which was initially limited to his bedroom. It has since expanded into part of Milwaukee, as well as other locations on Earth (including Marie Byrd Land, which is also claimed by two other micronations, Melchezidek and Westarctica; q.v.). Talossa's founder also claims to have invented the term micronation. Although Talossa was disestablished by its founder in 2005, it continues to exist due to the continued efforts of its citizens. Talossa is notable for having its own invented language, which has an extensive vocabulary.
Global Country of World Peace2000Maharishi Mahesh Yogi, the founder of Transcendental Meditation, established this "country without borders for peace-loving people everywhere". It has made several unsuccessful attempts to create sovereign territory in recognized countries by offering financial compensation to their governments or to local residents. The micronation's currency has gained some limited acceptance. As of 2023, the GCWP is led by Tony Nader.

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Micronations 2023

How many micronations are there?

The exact number of micronations in the world is difficult to determine, as micronations are by their nature both small and often unrecognized or illegitimate. However, more than 50 acknowledged micronations exist and many estimates place the actual number between 100-400.

Frequently Asked Questions