Texas is the largest of the 48 contiguous US states and sits in the South Central part of the country along the US-Mexico border. This is due to its current growth rate of 1.80%, which ranks 3rd in the country. The last US census was in 2010, so current figures are projected based on the latest estimates.
At the time of the 2010 Census, the number of citizens living in the Lone Star state was declared at 25,145,561, making it the second most populous state in the country. The state's population has now hit an all-time high of over 27 million.
Texas might be the second largest in terms of surface area at 268,581 square miles (696,241 square kilometers) but the statistics with regards to density are a little different. Texas has just 105.2 people per square mile and those figures are merely the 26th highest in the US.
Perhaps when you consider that there is harsh terrain and high temperatures across much of Texas, maybe the density statistics aren’t so surprising.
Texas has three cities with more than 1 million people: Dallas, Houston and San Antonio, which also rank as 10 of the most populous cities in the country. There are also three cities with a population over 500,000, which are El Paso, Fort Worth and the capital, Austin, which are among the 25 largest cities in the US.
The two most populated counties in Texas are Harris and Dallas Counties, with respective populations of 4,652,980 and 2,618,148. Both counties currently enjoy growth rates exceeding 10% since the last official census in 2010.
The median age among the residents of the state is approximately 34.2 years of age. When examining the ratio of females to males across the population, 50.4% are females and 49.6% are males.
In terms of religious preferences among the current residents of the state, 77% are affiliated with a Christian based faith, 4% are affiliated with non-Christian based faiths, and 18% report no affiliation with any religion in particular.
Texas was part of Mexico until its revolution in 1835-36 made it an independent republic, with a territory somewhat larger than the present State. It became part of the United States and was admitted as a State on December 29, 1845. It reached essentially its present boundaries in 1850, after the sale to the United States of an extensive northwestern area. In 1896 a long-standing dispute over what is now Greer County, Oklahoma was decided against Texas by the U.S. Supreme Court. In 1930 a Supreme Court decision transferred from Oklahoma to Texas a narrow strip on the eastern side of the Texas Panhandle. Beginning in 1905, international treaties and conventions have exchanged small tracts along the Rio Grande with Mexico, notably in and adjacent to the city of El Paso.
Census coverage of eastern Texas began in 1850, although in 1820 and 1830 the census counts for (old) Miller County, Arkansas Territory, included some people in what is now Texas. By 1880 census coverage included the entire State.
According to the most recent ACS, the racial composition of Texas was:
By far the biggest increase in the measured population of Texas took place between 1850 and 1860 when the numbers jumped from 212,592 to 604,215. This represented a rise of an incredible 184.2% and further large jumps were experienced for the rest of the 19th century.
Further growth levels settled down by comparison but there has still been a healthy increase declared at every US census over the last 100 years.
The 2010 confirmed figure of 25,145,561 represented an increase of 20.6% from the 2000 numbers of 20,851,820. Like most states across the US, the population of Texas has increased from its very birth but percentage rises are fairly constant with the recent 20.6% increase being a fairly typical figure.
Unlike much of the United States of America, Texas’ growth is fairly constant and as such, it is far easier to predict than other parts of the country. The population of Texas in 2016 is now estimated at 27.4 million, and given its very high growth rate, it will be no surprise to see a substantial jump in the population at the next census.
Currently, 5 of the 15 fastest-growing cities in the United States are located in Texas, and San Marcos, located between San Antonio and Austin, had the highest growth rate of any US city or town with more than 50,000 people between 2011 and 2012.
The population of Texas is estimated to continue the "rural flight" trend, further increasing the population of its larger cities, with a growth fueled by the suburbs, as well as recent gas and oil development in many parts of the state.
Hispanics, already a major group, are expected to become the majority by 2020, while the population also grows older as the baby boomer generation ages. By 2040, Texas is projected to have a population over 45 million.
The largest European ancestry groups in the state include German (11.3%), Irish (8.2%) and English (27%). There are also large populations of Italian Americans (472,000) and French Americans (600,000) in Texas.
Black Americans are the largest racial minority in the state, with blacks of Hispanic and non-Hispanic origin making up less than 12% of the population. Native Americans are a very small minority, with Cherokee Indians the largest of the group claiming 0.1% of the population.
Asian Americans represent a rather large minority group in Texas, with more than 200,000 Indians living in the state. There are large populations of Vietnamese, Chinese, Koreans, Filipinos and Japanese in Texas, along with sizable populations of people with Hmong, Thai and Cambodian ancestry.
Hispanics and Latinos are Texas's second largest group after non-Hispanic Europeans, with nearly 8.5 million people. People of Mexican descent account for 30.7% of the total population with 7.3 million residents, although there are also large populations of Puerto Ricans and Cubans.
English remains the main first language, but for 27% of Texans, their first language is Spanish.
Because of the state of Texas' size, it isn't surprising that the area is home to 254 counties. When comparing data from the 2010 Census to estimates taken in 2015, the state showed a balance of population losses and gains across the state. Multiple states had population gains of over 20%. These counties include Andrews at 22.04%, Loving at 34.94%, Fort Bend at 21.25%, Kendall at 20.03%, and Hays at 23.04%. Other counties, including Kaufman, Harris, and Ector experienced population gains exceeding 10%, while other counties saw smaller but still significant gains.
As far as declining populations, several Texas counties posted losses during the 5-year period. Terrell County saw the biggest loss at 17.05%. Other counties saw population losses greater than 5%, including Presidio, Dickens, Hall, and Motley.
Black or African American
Two or more races
Native Hawaiian or Pacific Islander
Average Family Size
Average Household Size
Rate of Home Ownership
Less Than 9th Grade
9th to 12th Grade
High School Graduate
High School Graduation Rate
The highest rate of high school graduation is among white people with a rate of 82.87%.
The highest rate of bachelors degrees is among asian people with a rate of 52.02%.
Other Indo-European Languages
Asian and Pacific Island Languages
64.9% of Texas residents speak only English, while 35.1% speak other languages. The non-English language spoken by the largest group is Spanish, which is spoken by 28.68% of the population.
Overall Poverty Rate
Male Poverty Rate
Female Poverty Rate
The race most likely to be in poverty in Texas is Hispanic, with 26.47% below the poverty level.
The race least likely to be in poverty in Texas is White, with 9.72% below the poverty level.
The poverty rate among those that worked full-time for the past 12 months was 3.35%. Among those working part-time, it was 17.27%, and for those that did not work, the poverty rate was 22.06%.
Overall Marriage Rate
Male Marriage Rate
Female Marriage Rate
The age group where males are most likely to be married is Over 65, while the female age group most likely to be married is 45-54.
Second Gulf War
First Gulf War
World War II
Less Than 9th Grade
High School Graduate
Bachelors or Greater
Veteran Poverty Rate
Veteran Disability Rate
Labor Force Participation
Non citizens include legal permanent residents (green card holders), international students, temporary workers, humanitarian migrants, and illegal immigrants.
Born in Texas
81.05% of Texas residents were born in the United States, with 58.08% having been born in Texas. 9.99% of residents are not US citizens. Of those not born in the United States, the largest percentage are from Latin America.