Cleveland, Ohio Population 2021

376,599
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Cleveland is a city located in Cuyahoga County Ohio. It is also the county seat of Cuyahoga County. With a 2020 population of 376,599, it is the 2nd largest city in Ohio (after Columbus) and the 54th largest city in the United States . Cleveland is currently declining at a rate of -0.58% annually and its population has decreased by -5.09% since the most recent census, which recorded a population of 396,815 in 2010. Cleveland reached it's highest population of 914,808 in 1950. Spanning over 82 miles, Cleveland has a population density of 4,847 people per square mile.

The average household income in Cleveland is $46,137 with a poverty rate of 32.65%. The median rental costs in recent years comes to $719 per month, and the median house value is $69,600. The median age in Cleveland is 36.3 years, 35.1 years for males, and 37.5 years for females.

Cleveland, or The Forest City, is located in northeastern Ohio on the southern shore of Lake Erie about 60 miles west of the Pennsylvania border.

Population Size and Density in Cleveland Metro

Cleveland has an estimated population of {pop}, down from 396,000 at the 2010 census and its record high of 914,000 in 1950. The city proper has a population density of 5,107 people per square mile. The Greater Cleveland Metro area is the 28th largest metropolitan statistical area in the U.S. with a population of just over 2 million. The larger Cleveland-Akron-Canton Combined Statistical Area (CSA) has a population of 3.5 million, and it is the 15th largest CSA in the country.

Cleveland Diversity

Major ethnic groups include German (9.2%), Irish (8.2%), Poles (4.8%), Italians (4.6%), and English (2.8%). 4.5% of Cleveland's population was foreign-born as of 2000, with 41% born in Europe, 29% born in Asia, 22% born in Latin America, 5% in Africa and 1.9% in North America.

Cleveland is also home to several small communities of Slovaks, Slovenes, French, Hungarians, Arabs, Dutch, Czechs, Ukrainians, Scottish, Russian, Scotch Irish, Croats, Puerto Ricans, West Indians, Romanians, Greeks, and Lithuanians. At one time, Cleveland had the highest number of Hungarians outside of Budapest. Between just 1920 and 1960, the black population in the city rose from 35,000 to 251,000.

Cleveland Population Growth

Between 2000 and 2010, Cleveland lost 17% of its population, and some neighborhoods -- including Glenville and Hough -- lost up to 38% of their population between 2000 and 2007, although downtown Cleveland has gained population. This puts Cleveland in the same category as Youngstown, Ohio, and Detroit in terms of population decline.

Despite the bleak picture, Cleveland has been revitalizing its downtown area since the 1990s and more than $3.5 billion has been invested in redeveloping the area. Forbes recently ranked Cleveland as one of the top 15 emerging downtown cities in the country. In 2013, downtown Cleveland also saw record growth, both in terms of its economy and population. The city's core daily population has reached 125,000, which is the highest ever for the city.

Cleveland got its start in 1796, when surveyors for the Connecticut Land Company laid out the area into townships and a capital they called "Cleaveland" after the leader, General Moses Cleaveland. The village of Cleaveland was incorporated in 1814, and its prime waterfront location quickly presented itself as an advantage. The region proliferated after the Ohio and Erie Canal was completed in 1832, linking the Ohio River and the Great Lakes to Cleveland and the Atlantic Ocean. Growth picked up even further when the railroad links were added, and it was incorporated as a city in 1836.

With its prime location, Cleveland served as a transportation hub on the Great Lakes, which helped it develop as a significant commercial center. It also became important in the American manufacturing industry at the beginning of the 20th century. Cleveland reached a population peak of 914,000 in 1950, but by the 1960s the economy had slowed, and residents fled to the suburbs.

After years of decline, Cleveland is today viewed as a great example of revitalization, and it now ranks as one of the most livable cities in the United States.

Cleveland Demographics

According to the most recent ACS, the racial composition of Cleveland was:

  • Black or African American: 48.83%
  • White: 39.99%
  • Two or more races: 4.38%
  • Other race: 3.59%
  • Asian: 2.61%
  • Native American: 0.53%
  • Native Hawaiian or Pacific Islander: 0.07%
The current population of Cleveland, Ohio is 376,599 based on our projections of the latest US Census estimates. The US Census estimates the 2018 population at 383,214.The last official US Census in 2010 recorded the population at 396,815.

Cleveland, Ohio Population 2021

2019 and 2020 population is estimated by projecting the raw 2018 numbers.

Year Population Growth Growth Rate
20212,037,760-5,340-0.26%
20202,043,100-5,350-0.26%
20192,048,450-5,350-0.26%
20182,053,800-3,440-0.17%
20172,057,240-3,760-0.18%
20162,061,000-3,010-0.15%
20152,064,010-3,350-0.16%
20142,067,3602600.01%
20132,067,1002,3200.11%
20122,064,780-4,210-0.20%
20112,068,990-6,490-0.31%
20102,075,4800.00%

Cleveland Metro Area Population by Year

Population by Race

Race Population Percentage
Black or African American188,11648.83%
White154,07839.99%
Two or More Races16,8684.38%
Some Other Race13,8453.59%
Asian10,0472.61%
American Indian and Alaska Native2,0610.53%
Native Hawaiian and Other Pacific Islander2670.07%
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Cleveland Population by Race

Cleveland Population Pyramid $2021

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Cleveland Median Age

36.3


Total

35.1


Male

37.5


Female

Cleveland Adults

There are 300,184 adults, (53,853 of whom are seniors) in Cleveland.

Cleveland Age Dependency

56.4

Age Dependency Ratio

21.9

Old Age Dependency Ratio

34.5

Child Dependency Ratio

Cleveland Sex Ratio

Female

200,008

51.91%

Male

185,274

48.09%

Cleveland Population by Age

Cleveland Renter vs Owner Occupied by Household Type

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Cleveland Household Types

Type Owner Renter
Married68.5%31.5%
All41.6%58.4%
Male38.9%61.1%
Non Family35%65%
Female32.5%67.5%

41.6%

Rate of Home Ownership

Cleveland Households and Families

Type Count Average Size Owned
All170,5492.1841.6
Non Family88,3911.1935
Female37,2243.3832.5
Married35,0183.1368.5
Male9,9163.2438.9

3.13

Average Family Size

2.18

Average Household Size

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Cleveland Households by Type

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Education Attained Count Percentage
Less Than 9th Grade14,1375.43%
9th to 12th Grade35,75613.74%
High School Graduate85,17732.74%
Some College60,36523.20%
Associates Degree19,2097.38%
Bachelors Degree28,41210.92%
Graduate Degree17,1226.58%
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Cleveland Educational Attainment by Sex (over 25)

Cleveland Educational Attainment by Race

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Race Total High School Bachelors
Black121,18596,89111,756
White101,89087,26627,667
Hispanic26,18817,6552,369
Other Race8,6465,961856
Asian6,6464,7512,626
2+ Races6,0595,0431,188
Native American1,371806100
Islander1349136

The highest rate of high school graduation is among white people with a rate of 85.65%.

The highest rate of bachelors degrees is among asian people with a rate of 39.51%.

Cleveland Educational Attainment by Race

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Name Average Male Female
Overall$30,063$31,992$27,055
Less Than 9th Grade$19,542$22,209$16,710
High School Graduate$24,483$27,852$21,350
Some College$29,636$31,861$27,350
Bachelors Degree$45,907$52,259$41,987
Graduate Degree$59,660$62,062$56,622

$30,063

Average Earnings

$31,992

Average Male

$27,055

Average Female

Cleveland Earnings by Educational Attainment

Cleveland Language by Age

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Cleveland Language

85.28% of Cleveland residents speak only English, while 14.72% speak other languages. The non-English language spoken by the largest group is Spanish, which is spoken by 9.34% of the population.

Cleveland Language

Cleveland Poverty by Race

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Name Total In Poverty Poverty Rate
Black184,28473,29239.77%
White125,30926,47921.13%
Hispanic45,32215,92735.14%
Multiple16,3035,62934.53%
Other13,7395,08036.98%
Asian9,3772,91831.12%
Native2,03099549.01%
Islander26321280.61%

32.65%

Overall Poverty Rate

31.55%

Male Poverty Rate

33.66%

Female Poverty Rate

Poverty in Cleveland

The race most likely to be in poverty in Cleveland is Islander, with 80.61% below the poverty level.

The race least likely to be in poverty in Cleveland is White, with 21.13% below the poverty level.

The poverty rate among those that worked full-time for the past 12 months was 5.78%. Among those working part-time, it was 35.44%, and for those that did not work, the poverty rate was 44.10%.

Cleveland Poverty

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Name Poverty
Less Than 9th Grade41.16%
High School29.86%
Some College24.90%
Bachelors or Greater9.86%

Cleveland Poverty Rate by Education

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Rate Poverty
Female Unemployed57.42%
Male Unemployed48.15%
Female Employed16.99%
Male Employed12.65%

Cleveland Poverty Rate by Employment Status and Sex

Cleveland Income by Household Type

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Name Median Mean
Households$30,907$46,137
Families$37,830$54,713
Married Families$61,459$79,641
Non Families$22,919$36,013
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Income by Household Type

Cleveland Marital Status

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Marriage Rates

25.1%

Overall Marriage Rate

26.1%

Male Marriage Rate

24.2%

Female Marriage Rate

Cleveland Married by Age and Sex

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Cleveland Marriage

The age group where males are most likely to be married is Over 65, while the female age group most likely to be married is 45-54.

Cleveland Marital Status by Race

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Cleveland Marital Status

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17,918

Number of Veterans

16,285

Male Veterans

1,633

Female Veterans

War Veterans
Vietnam6,585
First Gulf War2,733
Second Gulf War2,429
Korea1,268
World War II595

Cleveland Veterans by War

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Age Group Veterans
55 to 644,685
65 to 744,528
35 to 543,829
75+3,507
18 to 341,369

Cleveland Veterans by Age

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Name Veterans % of Total
Black8,8926.35%
White8,1236.17%
Hispanic8882.84%
2+ Races4275.38%
Other Race2992.96%
Native American915.71%
Asian860.99%

Cleveland Veterans by Race

Cleveland Veterans by Education

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16.67%

Veteran Poverty Rate

33.01%

Veteran Disability Rate

Cleveland Veterans by Education

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59.1%

Labor Force Participation

51.3%

Employment Rate

13.2%

Unemployment Rate

Cleveland Employment by Age

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Cleveland Employment by Race

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Cleveland Employment by Education

Origin of Non-Citizens

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Non citizens include legal permanent residents (green card holders), international students, temporary workers, humanitarian migrants, and illegal immigrants.

Origin of Naturalized Citizens

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72.43%

Born in Cleveland

94.11%

Native Born

5.89%

Foreign Born

3.20%

Non Citizen

2.69%

Naturalized

Place of Birth

94.11% of Cleveland residents were born in the United States, with 72.43% having been born in Ohio. 3.20% of residents are not US citizens. Of those not born in the United States, the largest percentage are from Asia.

Cleveland Place of Birth

Year Population Growth Annual Growth Rate
2021376,599-2,205-0.58%
2020378,804-2,205-0.58%
2019381,009-2,205-0.58%
2018383,214-2,038-0.53%
2017385,252-2,410-0.62%
2016387,662-1,582-0.41%
2015389,244-1,627-0.42%
2014390,871-921-0.24%
2013391,7922420.06%
2012391,550-1,117-0.28%
2011392,667-3,259-0.82%
2010395,926-82,477-1.87%
2000478,403-27,213-0.55%
1990505,616-68,206-1.26%
1980573,822-177,057-2.65%
1970750,879-125,171-1.53%
1960876,050-38,758-0.43%
1950914,80836,4720.41%
1940878,336-22,093-0.25%
1930900,429103,5881.23%
1920796,841236,1783.58%
1910560,663178,8953.92%
1900381,768120,4153.86%
1890261,353101,2075.02%
1880160,14667,3175.60%
187092,82949,4127.90%
186043,41726,3839.81%
185017,03410,96310.87%
18406,0714,97118.63%
18301,1005006.25%
18206000.00%

Cleveland Population by Year