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2021 Production

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Black Pepper Production by Country 2024

Black pepper is one of the most fundamental seasonings in a vast selection of cuisines from around the globe. Made from the dried, immature fruit of the pepper vine, it provides a pungent spice to dishes of all varieties, whether it's integrated into recipes or used to amp up prepared dishes. But most of the world's production of black pepper comes from just a few countries.

Country
2021 Production
Vietnam288,167
Brazil118,057
Indonesia81,219
Burkina Faso67,983
India64,816
Sri Lanka42,485
China33,133
Malaysia31,636
Tajikistan21,269
Mexico9,841

Vietnam is the world's top black pepper producer, growing 288,167 tons of the spice in 2021. That's more than a third of the world's overall production and more than twice the output of second place, Brazil, which produced 118,057 tons of black pepper. There's another steep drop to Indonesia in third (81,219 tons), followed by Burkina Faso (67,983 tons) and India (64,816 tons) to round out the top five. Seven of the world's top ten black pepper producers are in Asia. Just nine nations worldwide produce more than 10,000 tons of black pepper annually as of 2021 - Vietnam, Brazil, Indonesia, Burkina Faso, India, Sri Lanka (42,485 tons), China (33,133 tons), Malaysia (31,636), and Tajikistan (21, 269.)

Among nations that grow and craft black pepper, the Caribbean island of St. Lucia is lowest at just four tons. Samoa put out 11 tons of the seasoning in 2021, followed by Brunei (29) and Ivory Coast (45.) The world's lowest producers are a mix of Pacific Island, Asian, and African nations.

The reasons for the disparity in pepper production aren't clear, as the plant can grow effectively in most warmer regions of the globe, outside of portions of Europe, North America, and Antarctica. Global production has grown more than 10% since 2019, with the biggest absolute increases in Vietnam. Indonesia, India, Malaysia, and Tajikistan are among the major black pepper-producing countries that saw declines in 2021 relative to 2019 levels.

Notes:
- Black pepper is derived from the dried seeds of the black pepper plant (Piper nigrum), a perennial flowering vine native to South Asia and Southeast Asia.

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Country
2021 Production (tons)
2020 Production (tons)
2019 Production (tons)
Vietnam288,167270,192264,854
Brazil118,057114,749109,401
Indonesia81,21986,08387,619
Burkina Faso67,98363,00054,000
India64,81666,00066,000
Sri Lanka42,48543,55741,429
China33,13333,13133,009
Malaysia31,63630,80433,940
Tajikistan21,26928,00047,107
Mexico9,84110,3999,384
Madagascar5,2834,4984,500
Ethiopia4,4314,4094,457
Ghana3,7383,7353,722
Ecuador3,5704,2274,600
Cambodia2,5162,5122,508
Rwanda2,3202,5542,538
Uganda2,0492,0582,068
Zimbabwe1,8571,8601,842
Costa Rica1,3191,3711,647
Kenya1,072900600
Niger1,0621,0601,066
Philippines9651,0281,132
Guatemala792786780
Honduras627631591
Thailand5161,0312,219
Tanzania452450446
Malawi411477400
Namibia400443483
Guyana342343344
Peru322166142
Macau223225223
Uzbekistan204205205
Kyrgyzstan192193192
Benin179178180
Fiji120120120
Cameroon979696
Zambia666768
Ivory Coast455788
Brunei292929
Samoa111111
Saint Lucia422
Bolivia
Mali
Georgia
Dominica
World793,818781,638784,041
showing: 45 rows

Which country is the largest producer of black pepper?

The world's largest producer and exporter of black peppercorns is Vietnam.

Frequently Asked Questions

Sources