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NATO Countries 2024

The North Atlantic Treaty Organization, alternately known as NATO, is a military alliance between countries in North America and Europe. NATO was formed in the aftermath of World War II to preserve peace in Europe and protect democratic nations from potential attacks by the Soviet Union (which exists today as the Russian Federation). NATO’s website states that NATO's founding treaty "commits the Allies to democracy, individual liberty and the rule of law, as well as to peaceful resolution of disputes. Importantly, the treaty sets out the idea of collective defense, meaning that an attack against one Ally is considered an attack against all Allies." As of March 2024, NATO has 32 members in total.

Current NATO Countries and the Years They Joined:

Note: * indicates a founding member

CountryJoinedCountryJoined
Albania2009Lithuania2004
Belgium1949*Luxembourg1949*
Bulgaria2004Montenegro2017
Canada1949*Netherlands1949*
Croatia2009North Macedonia2020
Czech Republic1999Norway1949*
Denmark1949*Poland1999
Estonia2004Portugal1949*
Finland2023Romania2004
France1949*Slovakia2004
Germany1955Slovenia2004
Greece1952Spain1982
Hungary1999Sweden2024
Iceland1949*Turkey1952
Italy1949*United Kingdom1949*
Latvia2004United States1949*

The 12 founding member countries of NATO are Belgium, Canada, Denmark, France, Iceland, Italy, Luxembourg, Netherlands, Norway, Portugal, the United Kingdom, and the United States. NATO also has a list of aspiring members, including Bosnia and Herzegovina, Georgia, Macedonia, and Ukraine, which may one day become full NATO members.

Is Ukraine part of NATO?

Not yet, but it is in the process of joining. Ukraine joined NATO's Partnership for Peace program in 1994 and applied to join the NATO Membership Action Plan (MAP) in 2008. The 2010 presidential election of Viktor Yanukovych, who wanted to keep the country non-aligned, delayed Ukraine's progress toward U.N. membership. However, after two important events in 2014—Russia's invasion of Ukraine's Crimean peninsula and a national election—Ukraine's new government renewed and prioritized efforts to join NATO. According to a 2017 poll, 69% of Ukrainians support joining NATO. Ukraine became a NATO aspiring member in 2018. On February 7, 2019, the Ukrainian parliament voted to change its constitution to affirm its intention to join NATO and the European Union.

Is Russia part of NATO?

No, Russia is not part of NATO. In fact, the Russian government's perceived aggressiveness is the main issue NATO was founded to counteract. Despite this, Russia has historically at least given the appearance of cooperation with NATO. Russia and NATO established the North Atlantic Cooperation Council in 1991, and Russia joined the Partnership for Peace program in 1994. The establishment of the Russia-NATO Council to address security issues and collaborate on joint projects followed in 2002.

NATO suspended cooperation with Russia in 2014 following Russia's invasion of Crimea, not including the NATO-Russia Council. Russia and NATO have held several meetings since 2017, and NATO states that an improvement in their relationship with Russia is dependent on Russia's compliance with international law and their commitments. In October 2021, NATO expelled eight Russians from its Brussels, Belgium headquarters amid concerns that they were undeclared intelligence agents. Russia responded by suspending relations with NATO.

Future NATO members

There currently exist three countries that are not yet NATO members, but are have formally informed NATO that they wish to be.

  • Bosnia and Herzegovina

The process of membership takes time, requiring applicants to prove they can meet certain political, economic, and military criteria (and enacting reforms if they cannot) and are willing to accede to the North Atlantic Treaty, and further requiring the governments of every existing NATO member to formally approve the application.

Finland and Sweden are NATO's newest full members, having completed the process in 2023 and 2024, respectively. While both countries joined the Partnership for Peace program (see below) in 1994, both had also stopped short of actually joining NATO—however, Russia's invasion of Ukraine in February 2022 convinced both countries that joining NATO would be in the best interest of national security.

The Partnership for Peace program

Twenty countries, including those actively pursuing MATO membership, are members of NATO's Partnership for Peace program, which is designed to build trust between the organization and states in Europe and the former Soviet Union. Perhaps ironically, Russia itself is a member of the Partnership for Peace program, though its invasions of Georgia (2008), Ukraine's Crimean peninsula (2014), and the Ukrainian mainland (2022) call the country's commitment to peace into question.

Members of NATO's Partnerships for Peace program:

Armenia - 1994Ireland - 1999Sweden - 1994
Austria - 1995Kazakhstan - 1994Switzerland - 1994
Azerbaijan - 1994Kyrgyzstan - 1994Tajikistan - 2002
Belarus - 1995Malta - 2008Turkmenistan - 1994
Bosnia and Herzegovnia - 2006Moldova - 1994Ukraine - 1994
Finland - 1994Russia - 1994Uzbekistan - 1994
Georgia - 1994Serbia - 2006

Members of the Partnership for Peace program include former republics of the Soviet Union: Armenia, Azerbaijan, Belarus, Georgia, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Moldova, Russia, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, Ukraine, and Uzbekistan, as well as Yugoslavia's former republics Bosnia and Herzegovina and Serbia. European Union members of the program include Austria, Finland, Ireland, Malta, and Sweden. Finally, the European Free Trade Association member Switzerland is also part of the Partnership for Peace program.

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How many countries are in NATO?

There are a total of 32 countries that are part of the North Atlantic Treaty Organization, commonly known as NATO.

Frequently Asked Questions

Sources