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Tax per Ton CO₂e 2023

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Carbon Tax Countries 2024

United States

The United States does not currently have a federal carbon tax, despite the efforts of many environmental organizations who claim that carbon tax countries are able to significantly lower their emissions. While there is no federal carbon tax that spans the entire country, several states have introduced their own carbon taxes that only cover emissions within their territory. These states include California, Oregon, Washington, Hawaii, Pennsylvania, and Massachusetts. The number of states that have carbon taxes has been growing steadily, and it seems likely that more states will pass carbon tax legislation in the future.

Canada

After many years of proposed carbon taxes, Canada finally passed carbon tax legislation on a federal level in 2018. The carbon tax came into effect in 2019. However, Canada's provinces have the option to enact their own carbon tax legislation instead. This is allowed because the more rural northern provinces may not have the same access to green energy as the more developed southern provinces. Seven Canadian provinces currently use the federal carbon tax, three have their own carbon tax legislation, and the remaining three are exempt from the carbon tax requirements because they do not have adequate provincial carbon pricing controls.

Sweden

Sweden was one of the first European nations to introduce a carbon tax, which it did in 1991. Its carbon tax legislation served as a model for many other European countries that introduced their own carbon taxes later. The carbon tax legislation in Sweden covers liquefied petroleum gas, petrol, oil, coal, natural gas, and aviation fuel used for domestic flights. However, several industries are exempt from the tax in Sweden. These industries include manufacturing, mining, and commercial horticulture. This effectively means that fewer than half of all business operations in Sweden are covered by the carbon tax.

The carbon tax in Sweden was initially SEK 250 per 1000kg of carbon emissions. In 1997, the rate was raised to SEK 365. In 2007, the rate was raised sharply to SEK 930.

Ireland

A federal carbon tax in Ireland was under consideration in 2004, but the government rejected the idea. The carbon tax legislation in Ireland eventually passed and was implemented in 2010. It covers liquid petroleum gas, fuel oil, kerosene, marked gas oil, and natural gas. At the time of implementation, the tax was 15 Euros per tonne. It has since been raised to 20 Euros per tonne. Farmers are exempted from the tax.

  • Carbon emissions are often measured (and taxed) using Carbon Dioxide Equivalents (CO₂e), a unit of measurement that enables standardized measurement of the climate impact of different greenhouse gases. Carbon Dioxide Equivalents are defined by the US EPA as "the number of metric tons of CO₂ emissions with the same global warming potential as one metric ton of another greenhouse gas."
  • Canada's value of 50.57USD was calculated by first converting the standard 2023 charge of 123.90 CAD per thousand cubic meters (10³m³) to a per-ton CO₂e value using the conversion factor of one ton CO₂ = 556.2m³, so one 10³m³ = 1.8 tons CO₂e, yielding a tax of 68.91 CAN (123.90*.5562) per ton of CO₂e. This was then converted from CAN to USD using March 2024 rates to achieve an ultimate value of $50.57USD per ton of CO₂e.
  • Carbon taxes often change annually. Canada's, for example, will rise from 123.90 CAD to 152.50, 181.10, and 209.70 from 2024-2026.

Download Table Data

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Country
Tax per Ton CO₂e 2023 (€)
Tax per Ton CO₂e 2023 (USD)
% of Country's GHGs Covered 2023
Year Implemented
Switzerland120.16130.8133%2008
Liechtenstein120.16130.8181%2008
Sweden115.34125.5640%1991
Norway83.4790.8663%1991
Finland76.9283.7436%1990
Netherlands51.0755.5912%2021
Ireland48.4552.7440%2010
France44.5548.535%2014
Luxembourg44.1948.1165%2021
Iceland35.4038.5355%2010
Austria32.5035.3840%2022
Germany30.0035.3840%2021
Denmark24.3726.5335%1992
Portugal23.9026.0136%2015
United Kingdom20.4622.2821%2013
Slovenia17.3018.8352%1996
Spain14.9816.312%2014
Latvia14.9816.310%2004
Poland13.2714.444%1990
Argentina8.3115.8%2018
Estonia2.002.186%2000
Ukraine0.750.8271%2011
Mexico14.6242.4%2021
Japan2.650%2012
South Africa737.3%2018
Colombia4.5319.4%2021
Canada50.570%2019
Chile533.2%2021
Singapore250%2019
showing: 29 rows

Which countries have the highest carbon tax?

Uruguay is currently the country with the highest carbon tax rate. The rate is US $155.87 per ton in the country.

How many countries have a carbon tax?

29 countries have some sort of carbon tax in place.

Frequently Asked Questions

Sources