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Infrastructure Spending by Country 2024

Infrastructure consists of the facilities necessary for an economy and society to function and grow. Infrastructure includes items such as transportation networks, utilities, computer networks, and waste management systems. Research by Oxford Economics and PWC projects that worldwide spending for infrastructure will exceed $9 trillion by 2025.

In most countries, governments pay for most of the infrastructure. Generally, developing countries invest more in infrastructure than developed ones because undeveloped countries have less infrastructure and need it to build their economies. For example, Asia Pacific countries are expected to account for at least 60 percent of all global infrastructure spending by 2025, while European countries drop to about 10 percent from 20 percent just a few years ago. As part of that trend, China invested more in infrastructure than any other country in 2023. China's primary infrastructure investments are for transportation, municipal administration, industrial parks, and social housing. The government also is investing in infrastructure for the agricultural industry, such as irrigation systems.

Other Asia Pacific countries that invest a large percentage of their Gross Domestic Product in infrastructure are Indonesia, Australia, India, Japan, and South Korea. India has the largest number of infrastructure projects under development.

Although Asia Pacific countries are investing large percentages of their GDPs in infrastructure, Canada and the United Kingdom are doing the best job of creating efficient infrastructures that address social and environmental needs, according to Deloitte and Duke University's Nicholas Institute for Energy, Environment & Sustainability. The research used a barometer to rate infrastructure investments based on social and environmental returns. On that barometer, Canada scored 70.4; the United Kingdom, 69.6; Germany, 67.7; Sweden, 67.6; and the Netherlands, 66.6; The United States scored 63.7 percent and tied for 10th place with Australia. The average score on the barometer was 55.6.

  • Data is for year 2021
  • Euro-to-USD conversions were computed using the 2021 average exchange rate of 1 Euro = 1.183 USD
  • Euro and dollar amounts are expressed in millions. For example, Uzbekistan's displayed road spending of 875.37 abbreviates and actual value of 875,369,666.2 Euros.

Download Table Data

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Country
% of GDP
Inland Spending (million $)
Air Spending (million $)
Rail Spending (million $)
Road Spending (million $)
Sea Spending (million $)
China4.8%$32,276$109,447$741,545
Georgia3.1%$1,289$22$50$524$7
Azerbaijan2.62%$86$1,429
Belarus2.42%$1$6$279$1,370
Serbia2.29%$60$20$373$1,010
Uzbekistan2.26%$18$528$1,036
Albania1.76%$1$6$314$0
North Macedonia1.74%$1$13$227
Hungary1.65%$1$58$764$2,241
Australia1.52%$7,985$15,718$1,013
Norway1.49%$222$1,747$3,871$23
Czech Republic1.38%$36$6$1,714$2,150
Slovakia1.35%$5$260$1,317
South Korea1.32%$542$7,428$15,622$1,274
Switzerland1.31%$344$4,338$5,561
Slovenia1.29%$12$446$354$46
Romania1.24%$224$2$216$2,581
Croatia1.16%$7$166$635
Japan1.1%$1,677$20,134$38,838$3,210
Estonia1.08%$27$71$332$1
Lithuania0.98%$12$41$129$513$46
Sweden0.96%$259$2,684$3,443$129
Russia0.95%$145$445$6,276$8,226$80
Turkey0.93%$410$2,585$5,024$34
United Kingdom0.9%$15,732$11,407
France0.88%$413$521$13,673$12,011$496
Italy0.86%$117$66$11,556$5,197$1,693
Latvia0.84%$7$99$238
Denmark0.81%$1,599$1,282
Moldova0.8%$3$0$98
Luxembourg0.79%$6$314$291
Finland0.79%$189$717$1,627$92
Germany0.77%$1,627$11,922$19,460$497
Poland0.68%$76$220$809$3,750$432
Austria0.67%$5$2,661$568
Montenegro0.63%$0$0
Belgium0.6%$665$114$1,345$1,551$267
Canada0.57%$1,393$1,616$8,924$1,117
New Zealand0.56%$304$194$1,198$246
Spain0.54%$955$2,980$4,683$1,523
United States0.51%$323$10,234$108,554
Iceland0.48%$2$123$35
Bulgaria0.45%$2$197$180$107
Greece0.43%$19$58$864$12
Ireland0.26%$337$119$990$13
Mexico0.2%$513$573$1,929$550
Chile0%$26$562
Portugal0%$51$363
Israel0%$3,185
showing: 49 rows

Which country spends the most on infrastructure?

China invests more money into infrastructure than any other country.

Frequently Asked Questions

Sources