Shall Issue States 2022

Concealed carry or carrying a concealed weapon (CCW) is the practice of carrying a weapon, such as a handgun, in public in a concealed manner. Not all weapons that fall under concealed carry laws are lethal. For example, pepper spray over 2 ounces in Florida requires a permit.

State Laws

There is no federal law concerning the issuance of concealed carry permits, but all 50 states have passed their own laws allowing qualified individuals to carry specific concealed firearms in public. States decide whether to allow concealed carry without a permit or require one. Some states make it very difficult to obtain permits. Nearly every state, gearing of its permit/license laws, places some restrictions on where concealed firearms can be carried, typically on carrying in bars, hospitals, schools, and public sporting events. State regulations regarding the issuance of concealed carry permits generally fall under one of four categories: unrestricted, shall-issue, may-issue, and no issue.

In addition to issuance policies, more than half of the states and the District of Columbia reunite a CCW permit applicant to demonstrate that they have received training in firearm use and safety. This can include knowledge and safe handling of firearms and ammunition, safe shooting fundamentals, federal and state laws regarding lawful purchase and ownership, state laws about self-defense and use of deadly force, and safe storage of firearms and ammunition and child safety. Among the shall-issue states, Illinois, Michigan, North Carolina, South Carolina, and Texas require live firing as part of the firearm training component.


A shall-issue policy for concealed carry means that individuals are required to have a license to carry a concealed handgun and the granting of such licenses is subject only to meeting specific criteria. Additionally, the granting authority has no discretion in the awarding of the licenses and there is no requirement of the applicant to demonstrate “good cause.”

In contrast with a may-issue jurisdiction, a shall-issue jurisdiction’s law state that the granting authority shall issue a license if the specified criteria are met. In a may-issue jurisdiction, however, the granting authority may issue a license at their discretion. There are 27 shall-issue states in the U.S. Despite being shall-issue states, however, 14 provide the granting authority a limited amount of discretion. 13 states do no permit any discretion.

The 14 limited discretion shall-issue states are: Alabama, Arkansas, Colorado, Georgia, Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Minnesota, Montana, Oregon, Pennsylvania, Rhode Island, Utah, and Virginia. The 13 no discretion shall-issue states are: Florida, Louisiana, Michigan, Nebraska, Nevada, New Mexico, North Carolina, Ohio, South Carolina, Tennessee, Texas, Washington, and Wisconsin.

Shall Issue States 2022

State Shall Issue 2022 Pop.
AlabamaShall Issue to Residents Only4,949,697
AlaskaConstitutional Carry and Shall Issue to Residents Only720,763
ArizonaConstitutional Carry and Shall Issue to Residents and Non-Residents7,640,796
ArkansasShall Issue to Residents and Non-Residents3,042,017
CaliforniaMay Issue to Residents Only39,664,128
ColoradoShall Issue to Residents Only5,961,083
ConnecticutMay Issue to Residents and Non-Residents3,546,588
DelawareMay Issue to Residents Only998,619
FloridaShall Issue Residents and Non-Residents22,177,997
GeorgiaShall Issue to Residents Only10,936,299
HawaiiMay Issue to Residents and Non-Residents1,401,709
IdahoShall Issue to Residents and Non-Residents1,896,652
IllinoisShall Issue to Residents and Non-Residents12,518,071
IndianaShall Issue to Residents and Non-Residents6,842,385
IowaShall Issue to Residents and Non-Residents3,174,426
KansasConstitutional Carry and Shall Issue to Residents and Non-Residents2,919,179
KentuckyShall Issue to Residents and Non-Residents4,487,233
LouisianaShall Issue to Residents Only4,616,106
MaineConstitutional Carry and Shall Issue to Residents and Non-Residents1,359,677
MarylandMay Issue to Residents and Non-Residents6,075,314
MassachusettsMay Issue to Residents and Non-Residents6,922,107
MichiganShall Issue to Residents Only9,995,212
MinnesotaShall Issue to Residents and Non-Residents5,739,781
MississippiConstitutional Carry and Shall Issue to Residents and Non-Residents2,961,536
MissouriConstitutional Carry and Shall Issue to Residents and Non-Residents6,184,843
MontanaShall Issue to Residents Only1,093,117
NebraskaShall Issue to Residents and Non-Residents1,960,790
NevadaConstitutional Carry and Shall Issue to Residents and Non-Residents3,238,601
New HampshireMay Issue to Residents and Non-Residents1,378,449
New JerseyShall Issue to Residants and Non-Residents8,870,685
New MexicoMay Issue to Residents and Non-Residents2,109,093
New YorkShall Issue to Residents and Non-Residents19,223,191
North CarolinaShall Issue to Residents and Non-Residents10,807,491
North DakotaShall Issue to Residents and Non-Residents774,008
OhioShall Issue to Residents and Non-Residents11,727,377
OklahomaShall Issue to Residents and Non-Residents4,007,179
OregonShall Issue to Residents and Non-Residents4,325,290
PennsylvaniaShall Issue to Residents and Non-Residents12,805,190
Rhode IslandShall Issue to Residents and Non-Residents1,062,583
South CarolinaShall Issue to Residents and Non-Residents5,342,388
South DakotaShall Issue to Residents and Non-Residents902,542
TennesseeShall Issue to Residents and Non-Residents7,001,803
TexasShall Issue to Residents and Non-Residents30,097,526
UtahShall Issue to Residents and Non-Residents3,363,182
VermontConstitutional Carry and Does Not Issue Permits622,882
VirginiaShall Issue to Residents and Non-Residents8,638,218
WashingtonShall Issue to Residents and Non-Residents7,887,965
West VirginiaConstitutional Carry and Shall Issue to Residents Only1,755,715
WisconsinShall Issue to Residents and Non-Residents5,867,518
WyomingShall Issue to Residents Only582,233

Shall Issue States 2022