In the federal government, there is an immense amount of power divided among three main branches: the legislative, executive, and judicial branches. The state governments, on the other hand, aren’t as powerful as the federal government. However, their power is significant within each state.
State governments operate similarly to the federal government, but the only difference is they have more power over the state. They also have a similar structure to the federal government, with each state possessing a legislative, executive, and judicial branch. Any action or ability that isn’t given to the federal government is handed down to the state governments, which then divides into the three central powers/branches.
The legislative branch is comprised of two parts: the House of Representatives and the Senate. These two parties are part of the bicameral legislature in each state - except Nebraska, which has one - and they both work together to achieve common goals, including:
- Making laws
- Approving state budgets
- Bringing forth tax legislation
- Drafting articles of impeachment
In the federal government, the legislative branch is responsible for the same duties. The only difference is that Congress is made of both members from the House of Representatives and the Senate. They all end up coming together to make the country’s laws.
The executive branch is the entity that performs one duty: enforce approved laws. It’s generally run by a governor, who also works alongside his/her executive officers and agencies to get the job done.
The citizens of the state usually elect these members of the branch. Although this is a general way to pick who is enforcing the laws in each state, the executive legislation within each state is not the same.
The federal government, on the other hand, performs the same duties. They play a slightly more significant role, though, because this branch is enforcing laws throughout the country. The positions are also somewhat different as this entity contains members like:
- The President
- The Vice President
- The Cabinet
- Some other federal agencies
The judicial branch has the help of the state supreme court and other municipal courts to interpret and evaluate the laws in place today. In the state, these court systems are used to bring forth matters related to regulations affecting the state.
Sometimes, when people aren’t happy with the results they get from the state courts, they will appeal the judgment to the Court of Appeals, then the U.S. Supreme Court. The U.S. Supreme Court is the court that the federal government uses to make any corrections to mistakes that the lower courts have made.
Unlike the state government, the federal government has the help of the Supreme Court and other higher appointed courts to make their decisions about laws. The judges for these courts are chosen based on who the President decides, and they are appointed for life. Judges for state governments, on the other hand, are selected by the state legislature.