Spain’s population peaked at 47.08 million people in 2011. In the years following, Spain’s population declined until 2017 when it began increasing again back to 46.75 million in 2020. Between 2016 and 2020, the population increased at very small rates between 0.03% and 0.1%.
After 2021, however, the country is expected to experience another population decline that is projected to be much steeper later in the century. Spain's population is projected to decline to 33.33 million people by 2099.
Spain’s fertility rate is at one of its lowest levels in decades at 1.35 births per woman. This is far below the population replacement rate of 2.1 births per woman. This is in part because Spain has a difficult labor market and fewer work-life balance policies, making it hard for young people to create families.