List of Country and Territory Capitals in Europe
Europe is the second smallest continent and the third most populous continent. Europe is approximately 3.93 million mi² and has a total population of over 741 million people. Europe has a total of 44 countries.
Albania - Tirana
Tirana is Albania's capital and the largest city by population and area. Tirana's 2020 population is estimated at 493,000, and the capital spans over 428.58 square miles. The capital is one of Europe's sunniest cities, receiving about 2,544 hours of sun per year. Thanks to Tirana's location in the center of Albania and its modern transportation infrastructure, it is also the country's economic, financial, political, and trade hub.
Andorra - Andorra la Vella
Andorra la Vella is the capital of Andorra. It is the highest capital city in Europe at an elevation of 3,356 feet (1,023 meters), making it a popular ski destination. Tourism is a significant contributor to the economy, as 80% of Andorra's GDP is from the 10 million tourists who visit annually, primarily to the capital. As of 2011, the city's population is 22,256.
Vienna is Austria's capital and most populous city. It is also one of the country's nine states. The capital's population is about 1.9 million, and its metropolitan area has about 2.6 million inhabitants. Vienna attracts over 6.8 million tourists per year, mostly from Germany, the United States, Italy, and Russia. UNESCO designated Vienna as a World Heritage Site in 2001; however, it was moved to World Heritage in Danger in 2017 because of planned development for high rise buildings.
Belarus - Minsk
Belarus's capital and largest city is Minsk. The earliest references to the capital date back to 1067. Minsk has over 2 million people in the capital, making it the 11th-most populous city in Europe, and 2.65 million in its metropolitan area. Minsk is also the economic capital and major industrial center of Belarus.
Located in the Brussels-Capital Region, the City of Brussels is the capital of Belgium. Brussels is also the European Union's administrative center and is often called the European Union's capital city. The capital's population is about 180,000 people. As with the other municipalities in Brussels, the city is legally bilingual, with its two official languages being French and Dutch.
Bosnia and Herzegovina's largest city and capital is Sarajevo. As of 2013, Sarajevo has over 275,524 residents in the city and over 555,000 people in its metropolitan area. In October 2019, UNESCO designated the capital as a UNESCO Creative City and is one of its Cities of Film. Additionally, the Old Jewish Cemetery in Sarajevo is a UNESCO tentative monument.
Bulgaria's capital is Sofia. Dating back to the 8th century, Sofia is one of the oldest European capital cities. With a population of 1.24 million people, it is Bulgaria's largest city and the EU's 15th-largest city. Sofia is home to the country's major universities, cultural institutions, and companies. The capital is also described as the "triangle of religious tolerance" because of three temples of the three major world religions (Christianity, Islam, and Judaism) situated in one square.
Zagreb is Croatia's capital and largest city. With a population of over 804,000 in its capital city and about 1.1 million in its metropolitan area. Zagreb's primary economic branches are high-tech industries and the service sector. Almost all of the largest Croatian companies, media, and scientific institutions are located in the cattail.
Prague is the capital and largest city of the Czech Republic. With a population of over 1.32 million in the capital city and 2.7 million in its metropolitan area, Prague is also the 13th-largest city in the EU. Thanks to its rich history, Prague was the fifth-most visited European city in 2017 behind London, Paris, Rome, and Istanbul. Its historic center has been a UNESCO World Heritage Site since 1992.
Denmark's capital and the most populous city is Copenhagen. As of January 1, 2020, the city has a population of 794,128 and a metro population of over 2.05 million. Copenhagen is the cultural, economic, and governmental center of Denmark. The city is also one of the major financial centers of Northern Europe. The service sector, especially in information technology, cleantech, and pharmaceuticals, has significantly boosted the capital's economy.
The capital of Estonia is Tallinn. With 437,619 inhabitants, Tallinn is the most populous city in Estonia. From its first historical record in 1219 until the first half of the 20th century, Tallinn was called its German name, Reval. The capital has the highest number of start-ups per person among European nations. Additionally, Tallinn is home to the EU's IT agency and the birthplace of international high tech companies like Skype.
Helsinki is Finland's capital and most populous city. Helsinki's city population is 656,229 as of July 2020, its urban population is 1.27 million, and its metro population is 1.52 million. It is also the most densely populated city in Finland, with 7,951.5 persons per square mile (3,070.08 per square kilometer). In 2016, the Economic Intelligence Unit ranked Helsinki as the ninth most livable city among 140 cities.
France - Paris
Paris is the capital and largest city in France. Paris's population is 2.15 million people in its city proper and 12.6 million in its metropolitan area. In 2019, Paris had 38 million visitors, making it the second-most visited city in the world behind Bangkok. Paris is known for its art, monuments, museums, shopping, and food.
Germany - Berlin
Germany's capital is Berlin. Berlin is also the largest city in Germany by population and area. There are about 3.8 million people in the city and 6.1 million in the metropolitan area. Berlin is a high-tech city whose economy Is based on the service sector that encompasses media, science, research, and creative industries. Berlin is also home to several World Heritage Sites and other notable monuments such as the Memorial to the Murdered Jews of Europe and the Berlin Wall Memorial.
Athens is the capital of Greece and one of the world's oldest cities. Athens's recorded history dates back over 3,400 years ago, and the heritage of Classical Athens is still present in the city. Athens is also the largest city in Greece. As of 2012, the Athens population is 664,046, its urban population is 3.1 million, and its metropolitan population is 3.75 million.
Budapest is Hungary's capital and financial center. Budapest is Europe's second-fastest developing urban economy. With a population of over 1.75 million in the capital city, almost 3 million in its urban area, and over 3 million in its metro area, Budapest is also Hungary's largest city and the EU's ninth-largest city by population within city limits. Budapest's metro area makes up about 33% of Hungary's total population. Budapest is home to over 40 colleges and universities and the second-largest synagogue and third-largest parliament building in the world. The capital attracts around 12 million tourists a year.
Iceland - Reyjavík
Reyjavík is Iceland's capital and largest city. The current population is around 131,000 people. The Reyjavík is the northernmost capital of a sovereign state located at latitude 64° 08'N. It is also Iceland's financial center and mostly responsible for Iceland's economic growth. The capital is considered to be the cleanest, greenest, and safest cities in the world.
Dublin is the capital and largest city in Ireland. As of 2016, Dublin's population is554,554 people in its capital. Its 2020 metropolitan population is 1.42 million, and the Greater Dublin area has 1.9 million people. Dublin is the country's economic center, being the 10th-richest city by personal income and the fourth-richest by purchasing power.
Italy - Rome
Rome is a special comune and the capital of Italy and the capital of the Lazio region. Rome has about 2.86 million people in its commune and 4.34 million in its metropolitan area, making it the largest city in Italy and the third-largest in the European Union. Rome is an important center for fashion and design, home to international brands such as Valentino, Fendi, and Bulgari.
Kosovo - Pristina
Pristina is the capital of Kosovo. Pristina has the second-largest Albanian-speaking population in Europe behind Tirana, Albania. Pristina's central location in the country makes it Kosovo's economic, financial, political, and trade center. The capital has a population of about 150,000 people.
Riga is the capital of Latvia. With a population of 627,487, Riga is the largest city in Latvia and the largest city of the Baltic states (Latvia, Estonia, and Lithuania). It also comprises one-third of Latvia's total population. The capital was founded in 1201, and its historical center is a UNESCO World Heritage City.
Liechtenstein - Vaduz
Vaduz is Liechtenstein's capital and the seat of the national parliament. Vaduz has just about 5,700 people, about 42% of whom are foreign residents, and 67% of whom are Roman Catholics. Vaduz is a center for the arts, home to the National Art Gallery and the National Museum.
Lithuania - Vilnius
Vilnius is the capital and largest city of Lithuania. Vilnius's population is 587,581, with an urban population of over 700,000 people. Vilnius is also the second-largest city in the Baltic states. Before World War II, the capital was one of the largest Jewish centers in Europe and has the nickname "the Jerusalem of Lithuania." Tourism is an important sector of the city's economy, with over 1.2 million visitors in 2018.
Luxembourg - Luxembourg
Luxembourg, also known as Luxembourg City, is Luxembourg's capital and a commune with city status. As the country's largest city, Luxembourg has about 123,000 people. The city's population is comprised of 160 nationalities, with foreigners representing about 70% of the population. Luxembourg is one of the EU's de facto capitals, along with Brussels, Frankfurt, and Strasbourg.
Skopje is the capital of North Macedonia. The area of Skopje has been inhabited since at least 4,000 BC. Its current population is around 550,000 people, making it the largest city in North Macedonia. The capital is a center timber, textiles, metal-processing, trade, logistics, banking, and other industries.
Malta - Valletta
Malta's capital city is Valletta, the European Union's smallest capital city and second-southernmost capital. Valletta is home to just over 5,827, as of January 2019 and spans over just 0.24 square miles (0.61 square kilometers). Its metro population is 394,000. In 1980, the city was officially recognized as a UNESCO World Heritage Site. Valletta is named after Jean Parisot de Valette, who defended the island from an Ottoman invasion during the Great Siege of Malta.
Moldova - Chișinău
The capital of Moldova is Chișinău, formerly known as Kishinev. Chișinău is Moldova's largest city and industrial and commercial center. As of 2014, its city proper has 532,513 people, while its municipality is over 700,000 people. The capital is the most economically developed and economically prosperous city in Moldova. Its major industries include textiles, plastics, rubbers, building materials, machinery, and more. Banking and shopping are its primary service fields.
Monaco - Monaco
Monaco is the second-smallest country in the world behind Vatican City and is officially a city-state. Given this, Monaco's capital is Monaco. Monaco is home to about 38,300 people, according to 2019 estimates, and covers only 0.81 square miles (2.1 square kilometers). The Monte Carlo casino has helped boost Monaco's economy, creating a tourist destination combined with the scenery and mild climate. Over 30% of Monaco's population are millionaires.
Montenegro - Podgorica
Podgorica is the capital and largest city of Montenegro. The capital's population about 156,000, comprising 30% of Montenegro's population. Podgorica was known as Titograd from 1946 to 1992. Its metropolitan area of 556 square miles (1,441 square kilometers) takes up about 10.4% of the country's total area.
Netherlands - Amsterdam and Den Haag
Amsterdam is the capital and most populous city of the Netherlands. Amsterdam has about 873,000 people in its municipality and over 2.4 million in its metropolitan area. Thanks to its many canals, Amsterdam is a UNESCO World Heritage Site and has been given the nickname "Venice of the North." Many international companies such as Netflix, Uber, and Tesla have established their European headquarters in Amsterdam, as well as other large Dutch institutions like booking.com.
Den Haag is the seat of the Dutch government and home to the Dutch supreme court, parliament, and monarch. Den Haag's population is about 540,000 people.
Norway's capital and most populous city is Oslo. The Oslo municipality has about 694,000 resents, while its metropolitan area has an estimated population of over 1.71 million. Oslo was founded as a city in 1040 at the end of the Viking Age and became a capital around 1300. Oslo is Norway's governmental center and its hub for banking, trade, shipping, and industry, mostly maritime industries.
Warsaw is Poland's capital and a significant tourist destination and cultural, economic, and political hub. Warsaw has about 1.8 million residents, and its metropolitan area has over 3.1 million residents, making it the largest city in Poland and the seventh-largest capital in the European Union. Warsaw has a continually growing business community, with over 304,000 companies registered in the city in 2006.
Portugal's capital and largest city is Lisbon. Lisbon's population is over 505,000 people within the capital city and over 2.8 million in its metropolitan area. Lisbon is a growing financial and economic center for Europe. It has been recognized as an alpha-level global city for its tourism, international trade, education, finance, media, arts, and entertainment significance.
Romania's capital city and largest city is Bucharest. Bucharest was first mentioned historically in 1459 and became the capital of Romania in 1862. The capital has become one of the fastest-growing high-tech cities in Europe, hosting the largest high-tech summation in Europe, The Romania Blockchain Summit. Bucharest is home to over 2.15 million people, making it the fourth-most populous city in the European Union.
Russia - Moscow
The largest capital city in Europe is Moscow, the capital of Russia. Moscow has a population of 12.4 million people. Moscow is one of the northernmost and coldest cities in the world. The city serves as the economic, political, cultural, and scientific hub for Russia, attracting its large population.
San Marino - San Marino
The capital of San Marino is the City of San Marino. San Marino sits at the country's highest point, cover 2.74 square miles of land, and home to about 4,000 people. The city was founded in the year 301 by Christian refugees. Its main economic activities include tourism, commerce, and the sale of postage stamps. The city is visited by about 3 million tourists every year.
Belgrade is Serbia's capital and largest city. About 1.7 million people live in Belgrade's metropolitan area, about one-quarter of Serbia's total population. As Serbia's primate city, Belgrade is home to Serbia's central government, government ministries, and administrative bodies. The capital is also home to almost all of the largest Serbian companies and scientific institutions.
Bratislava is the capital and largest city of Slovakia. The official population of the capital, as of December 2018, is 432,864; however, it is estimated actually to be over 660,000 people. In 2017, Bratislava was the third-richest EU region in terms of GDP (PPP) behind Hamburg and Luxembourg City. Its GDP (PPP) is about three times higher than other Slovak regions, thanks to its tourism and shopping sectors.
Slovenia's capital, Ljubljana, is the country's largest city and economic, administrative, cultural, and political center. Its current population is 295,504 in its capital city and around 540,000 in its metropolitan area. Ljubljana became the capital of the Socialist Republic of Slovenia after World War II and then became the capital of the newly formed, independent Slovenia in 1991.
Madrid is the capital and largest city of Spain. Madrid has about 3.3 million inhabitants in its city and about 6.5 million in its metropolitan area. It is the second-largest European Union city, second to only Berlin, and the second-largest monocentric metropolitan area, second to only Paris. As one of the world's major global cities, Madrid has a heavy influence in education, entertainment, arts, fashion, culture, politics, and more. It is also Spain's major financial center, with the third-largest GDP in the EU and high economic output and standard of living.
Sweden's capital is Stockholm. Stockholm has 1 million inhabitants in its municipality, 2 million in its urban area, and 2.4 million in its metropolitan area, making it the most populous city in Sweden and in Scandinavia. Stockholm accounts for over one-third of Sweden's total GDP and ranks in the top 10 for Europe in terms of GDP per capita. Stockholm is also home to several of Europe's top universities. The capital is also the seat of government and its agencies and is home to the Swedish monarch and Prime Minister.
Switzerland - Bern
Bern is the de facto capital of Switzerland. Its population of 144,000 makes it the fifth-largest city in Switzerland, and about 34% of its population are foreign nationals. The official language in Bern is Swiss Standard German, and the most-spoken language is Bernese German. Bern's city center is a UNESCO World Heritage Site thanks to its medieval design.
Ankara is Turkey's capital and second-largest city after Istanbul. Ankara has a population of 4.5 million in its urban center and over 5.7 million in the Ankara Province. The General National Assembly of Turkey was established in Ankara in April 1923 and became the capital in October 1923. The capital is an industrial and commercial center for Turkey and serves as a large employment center because of the government.
Ukraine's capital and most populous city is Kiev or Kyiv. Kyiv was founded in the year 482. As of January 2020, the population is 2.97 million in the city and 3.38 million in its metropolitan area, making Kyiv the seventh-most populous city in Europe. The capital is home to many high-tech industries and higher education institutions. It is Ukraine's business and commerce center and is a major administrative, cultural, and scientific center.
United Kingdom - London
London is the capital and largest city of England and the United Kingdom. London is known as one of the most influential, most powerful, most visited, and more expensive cities in the world. It has a significant influence on commerce, media, tourism, transportation, the arts, education, entertainment, and fashion. London is one of the most popular tourist destinations in the world, with over 65 million visitors in 2015.
Vatican City - Vatican City
Vatican City is both a country and a capital city. Vatican City is the smallest capital in Europe, covering 109 acres and home to approximately 1,000 people. The only people allowed to live in Vatican City are the Roman Catholic clergy and the police force. Roughly 2,400 people work in Vatican City and commute from Italy every day.
Other capital cities in Europe tend to be among those with the highest populations. Paris is home to 10.9 million people; London has 9 million; Madrid has 6.5 million; Rome has 4.2 million; Berlin has 3.6 million, and Athens has 3.2 million.