The Caucasian race is a group of people that originated in Europe. This race is also commonly known as "white" or "white-skinned," although some people debate the term's current usage. The term was first introduced in the 18th century at the Gottingen School of History when the term "Caucasoid” was used to describe three major races. During this time period, populations of Caucasoid had many different skin colors, from white to dark brown. This is because members of this race originated from Europe, Western Asia, South Asia, Central Asia, the Horn of Africa, and North Africa.
Some characteristics of the Caucasoid race include a thinner dermis of the skin, a lower amount of melanin in the skin, small mouths, and a narrow nose.
In the 19th century, the classification of the Caucasoid race was further broken down into three ethnolinguistic groups. These groups included the Aryans, Semitics, and Hamitics. There are also several subraces, including Atlantic, Arabid, Irani, Armenoid, Nordic, Alpine, and Mediterranean, to name a few.
When taking the meaning of the word "Caucasian" to mean light-skinned people with origins in Europe, you'll find these groups worldwide. If you want to be more specific, you can look at the Caucasus region. This specific region is located between the Black Sea and the Caspian Sea and is divided into two parts. Northern Caucasus is known as Ciscaucasia, while the region to the south is known as Transcaucasia.