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Permitless Carry
Requires Permit

Constitutional Carry States 2023

Constitutional Carry States 2023

In the United States, the phrase "constitutional carry," also called permitless carry, means that someone can carry a concealed handgun without a license or permit. The term was derived from the Second Amendment to the U.S. Constitution, which gives citizens the right to bear arms. There are currently 13 constitutional carry states in the U.S. and two states with Constitutional Carry for residents only.

Aside from constitutional carry, states have concealed carry and open carry. In concealed carry states, a person can carry a legal weapon in their vehicle or on their person as long as it is hidden from sight. A permit is required in several states, and every state has laws about whether or not a permit will be issued to residents or non-residents. In open carry states, a person can legally carry their firearm in a holster or attached to a sling so that it is in the open and easily accessible.

In North Dakota, permitless carry has only been allowed for residents. All non-residents had to have a permit to carry a concealed handgun. However, as of August 1, 2023, this will change. HB 1339 was signed by Governor Doug Burgum in April 2023, allowing non-residents the ability to concealed carry without a permit. Concealed and open carry do not require a permit for any of the states mentioned above except North Dakota and some localities in Missouri.

As of mid-2023, there are currently twenty-seven states that allow for Constitutional Carry. These states include:

In many of these states, a person must be 18 or 21 years old to possess a firearm. Some states have an age requirement of 21 but allow military members to permitless carry at 18. It is important to check local laws to know the status of permitless carry.

Some U.S. states have a limited form of concealed carry without a permit. These states are Illinois, New Mexico, and Montana. In Illinois, a permit is not required to carry a handgun that is unloaded and fully enclosed. In New Mexico, it is legal to carry a loaded, concealed weapon while traveling in a vehicle, including cars, motorcycles, bicycles, and horseback. Montana does not quite make the cut for constitutional carry because it authorizes people to carry without a permit in restricted non-populated areas in Montana.

Constitutional Carry States 2023

- Constitutional carry means that the state’s law does not prohibit citizens who legally possess a handgun from carrying it openly and/or in a concealed manner. Therefore, no state permit is required.
- Permitless carry includes not only constitutional carry states but also states where the carrier must meet certain qualifications in order to legally carry, such as having no DUIs for 5 years.
- Some states allow open carry without a permit but require a permit for concealed carry.

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Constitutional Carry Status
Minimum Age
Additional Details
AlabamaPermitless Carry21
AlaskaPermitless Carry21
ArizonaPermitless Carry21
ArkansasPermitless Carry18
CaliforniaRequires Permit
ColoradoRequires Permit
ConnecticutRequires Permit
DelawareRequires Permit
District of ColumbiaRequires Permit
FloridaPermitless Carry21Minimum age effective as of July 1, 2023.
GeorgiaPermitless Carry21
HawaiiRequires Permit
IdahoPermitless Carry18
IllinoisRequires Permit
IndianaPermitless Carry18
IowaPermitless Carry21
KansasPermitless Carry21
KentuckyPermitless Carry21
LouisianaRequires Permit
MainePermitless Carry21
MarylandRequires Permit
MassachusettsRequires Permit
MichiganRequires Permit
MinnesotaRequires Permit
MississippiPermitless Carry18
MissouriPermitless Carry19Minimum age drops to 18 for members of the military.
MontanaPermitless Carry18
NebraskaPermitless Carry21Minimum age effective as of 90 days after the end of legislative session.
NevadaRequires Permit
New HampshirePermitless Carry18
New JerseyRequires Permit
New MexicoRequires Permit
New YorkRequires Permit
North CarolinaRequires Permit
North DakotaPermitless Carry18Effective August 30, 2023, permitless carry allowed for non-residents as well as residents.
OhioPermitless Carry21
OklahomaPermitless Carry21Minimum age drops to 18 for members of the military.
OregonRequires Permit
PennsylvaniaRequires Permit
Rhode IslandRequires Permit
South CarolinaRequires Permit
South DakotaPermitless Carry18
TennesseePermitless Carry21Minimum age drops to 18 for members of the military.
TexasPermitless Carry21
UtahPermitless Carry21
VermontPermitless Carry18
VirginiaRequires Permit
WashingtonRequires Permit
West VirginiaPermitless Carry21
WisconsinRequires Permit
WyomingPermitless Carry21
showing: 51 rows

Constitutional Carry States 2023