The Novel Prize is one of the highest honors that a person can receive in his or her lifetime. These awards are given to people around the world in recognition of outstanding contributions for humanity in areas including literature, physiology, , peace, physics, chemistry, and economic sciences. These international awards are given out every year. The awards are named after Alfred Nobel, a Swedish engineer, inventor, and chemist.
Nomination forms are sent out each year to approximately 3,000 academics. The form specific to the Novel Peace Prize is sent to governments, members of the Norwegian Novel Committee, and former Peace Prize laureates. Once all submissions have been received by January 31, the Novel Committee nominates 300 potential winners. After the potential laureates are selected, a report is prepared by the Nobel Committee. This report is given to the institutions that award each prize. The institutions then select up to three laureates and two different works per award by majority vote.
As of 2019, winners of the Nobel Prize receive a medal, a diploma, and prize money totaling over $900,000 U.S. dollars. Currently, the United States has won the highest number of Nobel Prizes with 375 as of May 2019. Two people, John Bardeen and Linus C. Pauling, have won two prizes each.
The nation with the next highest number of Nobel Prizes is the United Kingdom with 130. Frederick Sanger from the U.K. won the prize twice for chemistry. Germany has won the next highest number of prizes with 108 and is the last country with over 100 Nobel laureates.