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Gold Reserves by Country 2024

One of the world's most precious metals, gold is a bright, reddish yellow mineral with the elemental symbol Au. Because of its unique mix of practical and aesthetic qualities—it is malleable, ductile, electrically conductive, corrosion resistant, largely non-reactive, and of course, beautiful to behold—gold has a myriad of uses. These range from jewelry and coinage to infrared shielding, gold leafing, tooth restoration, and computers and other electrical devices. Despite its usefulness, gold is relatively rare in nature, a fact that makes it all the more valuable.

Gold has been used as a form of currency since ancient times, which eventually led to the establishment of the gold standard. Widely used in the 19th and 20th centuries, the gold standard was a monetary system in which countries ensured the value of their paper money and coins by keeping equivalent values of actual gold under lock and key. The gold standard became less practical as economies grew, and is not currently used by any of the world's countries. However, many nations still hold significant gold reserves. As of September 2021, there were approximately 31,695 tons of gold reserves in the world. The top ten central banks with the largest gold reserves have remained relatively the same over the past few years (full 100+ country list at page end).

Top 10 Countries with the Largest Gold Reserves (in tons)

Country
Reserves
United States8,133
Germany3,353
Italy2,452
France2,437
Russia2,333
China2,192
Switzerland1,040
Japan846
India801
Netherlands612

The United States has the largest gold reserves in the world at 8,133 tons, more than Germany and Italy combined. The U.S also has the highest gold allocation as a percentage of its foreign reserves at approximately 76%. The majority of U.S. gold is held in Fort Knox in Kentucky. Many central banks turned from being net sellers to net buyers in 2010. Russia has been the largest purchaser of gold for the last seven years, purchasing 274 tons in 2018 alone.

Gold reserves explained

A gold reserve is the gold held by a nation’s central bank to support the value of its national currency and, during the gold standard era, was used as a guarantee to redeem promises to pay depositors, noteholders, and trading peers. Additionally, reserves were amassed by governments to meet the costs of waging war and to acquire and hold “treasure,” because the policies of the time emphasized the importance of doing so.

Gold reserves are a helpful tool for governments, which can purchase large amounts of gold to counteract rising inflation. Additionally, the value of imports and exports from a country is highly connected to the country’s currency. If imports exceed exports, the value of the currency declines, and vice versa. This means that a country that exports gold and has a surplus of gold reserves can often see an increase in the strength of its currency. On the other hand, gold can also reduce the value of the currency used to buy it. If many transactions are made in gold, it can devalue the local currency and cause inflation.

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Country
Reserves (Tons)
Reserves - Value (Millions)
Reserves Holdings
Data Date
United States8,133$489,13468.02%2023-Sep
Germany3,353$201,62367.34%2023-Sep
Italy2,452$147,45064.41%2023-Sep
France2,437$146,55266.09%2023-Sep
Russia2,333$140,28824.67%2023-Sep
China2,192$131,7953.98%2023-Sep
Switzerland1,040$62,5447.64%2023-Sep
Japan846$50,8764.11%2023-Sep
India801$48,1588.13%2023-Sep
Netherlands612$36,83256.06%2023-Sep
Turkey479$28,80527.38%2023-Sep
Taiwan424$25,4764.32%2023-Sep
Uzbekistan384$23,08274.4%2023-Sep
Portugal383$23,01170.73%2023-Sep
Poland334$20,06911.15%2023-Sep
Saudi Arabia323$19,8624.3%2023-Sep
United Kingdom310$18,66010.95%2023-Sep
Kazakhstan309$18,60558.36%2023-Sep
Lebanon287$17,25054.45%2023-Sep
Spain282$16,93417.25%2023-Sep
Austria280$16,83855.92%2023-Sep
Thailand244$14,2386.58%2023-Sep
Singapore230$13,8474.02%2023-Sep
Belgium227$13,67535.36%2023-Sep
Algeria174$10,43713.18%2023-Sep
Philippines165$9,90910.09%2023-Sep
Venezuela161$9,40182.96%2023-Sep
Libya147$9,01610.43%2023-Sep
Iraq133$8,1617.44%2023-Sep
Brazil130$7,7972.29%2023-Sep
Egypt126$7,57623.03%2023-Sep
Sweden126$7,56113.08%2023-Sep
South Africa125$7,54212.35%2023-Sep
Mexico120$7,2223.45%2023-Sep
Greece114$6,87855.23%2023-Sep
South Korea104$6,2811.52%2023-Sep
Romania104$6,2329.02%2023-Sep
Qatar98$5,90011.63%2023-Sep
Hungary94$5,68313.51%2023-Sep
Australia80$4,8028.57%2023-Sep
Kuwait79$4,7499.18%2023-Sep
Indonesia79$4,7253.5%2023-Sep
United Arab Emirates74$4,5662.76%2023-Sep
Denmark67$4,0023.98%2023-Sep
Pakistan65$3,88930.56%2023-Sep
Argentina62$3,71313.74%2023-Sep
Belarus54$3,23840.89%2023-Sep
Finland49$2,94817.9%2023-Sep
Bolivia43$2,70688.15%2023-Sep
Cambodia42$2,61214.21%2023-Sep
Bulgaria41$2,4576.23%2023-Sep
Malaysia39$2,3382.12%2023-Sep
Serbia39$2,3269.09%2023-Sep
Jordan37$2,17715.01%2023-Sep
Peru35$2,0222.75%2023-Sep
Ecuador34$2,03232.16%2023-Sep
Slovakia32$1,90619.06%2023-Sep
Ukraine27$1,6274.1%2023-Sep
Syria26$1,5058.28%2023-Sep
Czech Republic25$1,5081.09%2023-Sep
Morocco22$1,3303.86%2023-Sep
Afghanistan22$1,27513.35%2023-Sep
Nigeria21$1,2462.89%2023-Sep
Kyrgyzstan21$1,26449.44%2023-Sep
Bangladesh14$8443.14%2023-Sep
Cyprus14$83649.36%2023-Sep
Mauritius12$74711.38%2023-Sep
Ireland12$7245.85%2023-Sep
Ghana9$5106.92%2023-Sep
Tajikistan8$49312.82%2023-Sep
Paraguay8$4935.09%2023-Sep
Nepal8$4804.27%2023-Sep
Myanmar7$4245.21%2023-Sep
Guatemala7$4152.04%2023-Sep
North Macedonia7$41510.03%2023-Sep
Tunisia7$4124.52%2023-Sep
Latvia7$4008.63%2023-Sep
Mongolia7$3989.64%2023-Sep
Lithuania6$3505.96%2023-Sep
Colombia5$2810.49%2023-Sep
Bahrain5$2725.7%2023-Sep
Mozambique4$2377.36%2023-Sep
Albania3$2063.38%2023-Sep
Slovenia3$1918.23%2023-Sep
Aruba3$19812.86%2023-Sep
Luxembourg2$1354.57%2023-Sep
Hong Kong2$1250.03%2023-Sep
Iceland2$1192.14%2023-Sep
Trinidad and Tobago2$1171.85%2023-Sep
Oman2$1100.62%2023-Sep
Haiti2$1064.46%2023-Sep
Yemen2$918.75%2023-Sep
Bosnia and Herzegovina1$901.04%2023-Sep
Suriname1$887.94%2023-Sep
El Salvador1$802.01%2023-Sep
Papua New Guinea1$852.21%2023-Sep
Mauritania1$603.05%2023-Sep
Laos1$514.21%2023-Sep
Honduras1$420.54%2023-Sep
Dominican Republic1$340.21%2023-Sep
Sri Lanka0$271.54%2023-Sep
Malawi0$234.13%2023-Sep
Malta0$151.27%2023-Sep
Chile0$150.04%2023-Sep
Estonia0$150.55%2023-Sep
Uruguay0$60.04%2023-Sep
Burundi0$21.07%2023-Sep
Fiji0$20.12%2023-Sep
Kenya0$10.01%2023-Sep
Comoros0$10.4%2023-Sep
Canada0$00%2023-Sep
Cameroon0$00%2023-Sep
Chad0$00%2023-Sep
Azerbaijan0$00%2023-Sep
Nicaragua0$00%2023-Sep
Turkmenistan0$00%2023-Sep
Norway0$00%2023-Sep
Costa Rica0$00%2023-Sep
Croatia0$00%2023-Sep
Eritrea0$00%2023-Sep
Armenia0$00%2023-Sep
Gabon0$00%2023-Sep
showing: 122 rows

Download Table Data

Enter your email below, and you'll receive this table's data in your inbox momentarily.

Country
Gold Reserves (Tons)
Month Confirmed
United States8,1332021-Dec
Germany3,3592021-Sep
Italy2,4522021-Sep
France2,4362021-Sep
Russia2,2992021-Sep
China1,9482021-Dec
Switzerland1,0402021-Sep
Japan8462021-Dec
India7542021-Dec
Netherlands6122021-Sep
Taiwan4242021-Sep
Kazakhstan4022021-Dec
Turkey3942021-Dec
Portugal3832021-Sep
Uzbekistan3622021-Dec
Saudi Arabia3232021-Sep
United Kingdom3102021-Dec
Lebanon2872021-Sep
Spain2822021-Sep
Austria2802021-Sep
Thailand2442021-Dec
Poland2312021-Dec
Belgium2272021-Sep
Algeria1742021-Dec
Venezuela1612021-Sep
Philippines1572021-Sep
Singapore1542021-Sep
Brazil1302021-Dec
Sweden1262021-Dec
South Africa1252021-Dec
Mexico1202021-Dec
Libya1172021-Sep
Greece1142021-Sep
South Korea1042021-Sep
Romania1042021-Dec
Iraq962021-Sep
Hungary942021-Dec
Egypt802021-Sep
Australia792021-Dec
Kuwait782021-Sep
Indonesia782021-Sep
Denmark662021-Sep
Pakistan642021-Dec
Qatar582021-Sep
United Arab Emirates542021-Sep
Argentina542021-Dec
Belarus522021-Sep
Cambodia502021-Sep
Finland492021-Sep
Bolivia422021-Sep
Bulgaria402021-Dec
Malaysia382021-Dec
Jordan372021-Sep
Serbia362021-Sep
Peru342021-Sep
Slovakia312021-Sep
Ukraine272021-Dec
Syria252021-Sep
Morocco222021-Sep
Ecuador212021-Sep
Afghanistan212021-Sep
Nigeria212021-Sep
Tajikistan172021-Sep
Bangladesh132021-Dec
Cyprus132021-Sep
Mongolia132021-Sep
Mauritius122021-Dec
Czech Republic102021-Dec
Kyrgyzstan102021-Dec
Ghana82021-Sep
Paraguay82021-Dec
Myanmar72021-Sep
Ireland72021-Sep
Guatemala62021-Dec
Tunisia62021-Dec
Sri Lanka62021-Sep
Latvia62021-Sep
Nepal62021-Sep
Lithuania52021-Sep
Colombia42021-Dec
Bahrain42021-Sep
Mozambique32021-Sep
Slovenia32021-Sep
Aruba32021-Sep
Bosnia and Herzegovina22021-Sep
Albania22021-Sep
Luxembourg22021-Sep
Hong Kong22021-Sep
Iceland12021-Dec
Papua New Guinea12021-Sep
Haiti12021-Sep
Yemen12021-Sep
Suriname12021-Dec
El Salvador12021-Sep
Honduras02021-Sep
Dominican Republic02021-Sep
Chile02021-Sep
Estonia02021-Sep
Uruguay02021-Sep
Malta02021-Sep
Burundi02021-Sep
Fiji02021-Sep
Kenya02021-Sep
Oman02021-Sep
Canada2021-Sep
Cameroon2021-Sep
Azerbaijan2021-Sep
Nicaragua2021-Sep
Armenia2021-Sep
showing: 109 rows

Gold Reserves by Country 2024

Which country has the largest gold reserves?

The country that has the largest gold reserves in the world is the United States.

Frequently Asked Questions

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