A transgender person is one whose expressed gender is different from the biological gender they displayed at birth. For example, an individual who is biologically male but identifies as female is considered transgender, as is an individual who is biologically female but identifies as male. The term transgender can also include individuals who identify as gender-fluid or nonbinary. Individuals who have undergone gender reassignment surgery are considered both transgender and transsexual. Some definitions of transgender include transvestites (cross-dressers), while others do not.
In a 2021 survey of 27 of the world's most LGBTQI+-friendly countries, Germany and Sweden tied as the countries with the highest rate of people who are transgender. According to the survey results, approximately three percent of all residents of Germany or Sweden identify as transgender, gender-fluid, or nonbinary. Ten additional countries posted rates of 2%, the estimated global average.
Note: Survey included 27 countries in which data was obtainable. Trans rates in other countries may have been higher, but unavailable.
While previous research indicates that approximately one percent of people who live in the United States identify as transgender, gender-fluid, or nonbinary, this number appears to be on the rise in younger generations. In a 2022 study by the Pew Research Center, roughly 1.6% of all Americans and 5% of young adults identified as transgender or nonbinary.
Population experts estimate that approximately two percent of the global population identifies as transgender, gender-fluid, or non-binary. That said, such estimates are extremely rough and the exact number of transgender individuals in the world is currently unclear, and can only be estimated with best-guess projections. The process of counting transgender individuals is currently hampered by significant challenges, which confound any effort to obtain a true and precise count of the global transgender population:
While these and other challenges currently make a precise count of the world's transgender people functionally impossible, conditions are improving in many countries. As more cultures and governments become more tolerant of and welcoming toward those who are transgender, thus emboldening trans individuals to be themselves without fear of repercussions, the percentage and number of people who openly identify as transgender is expected to rise.
There is no definitive survey or study that determined which country is home to the most transgender people. But it is possible to make a logical hypothesis. While the precise number of transgender people in most countries is currently unknowable, the available data seem to indicate that the percentage of people who identify as transgender tends to be roughly consistent around the world, ranging from 1-3%. With that fact in mind, it is likely (though unproven as of 2023) that either India or China, the world's two most populous countries by an immense margin, has the most trans people in the world.
Research indicates that transgender individuals do have a higher rate of mental health issues than cisgender individuals. This trend has multiple causes, many of which stem from the considerable, even life-threatening discrimination trans individuals often risk by revealing their true selves, particularly in more conservative parts of the world. These factors include:
The country that has the most transgender people in the world is either Germany or Sweden, as both are tied with three percent of each country's population being transgender.