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LGBT Rights by Country / Best and Worst Countries for LGBTQI+ Rights 2024

The acronyms LGBT, LGBTQ+, LGBTQI+, and their related forms refer to individuals with non-heterosexual sexual identities and/or non-cisgender gender identities. Many LGBTQI+ people around the world face inequality, discrimination, and in some cases, violence. Rights and protections for those who are a part of the LGBTQI+ community vary greatly by country or jurisdiction. Some countries are accepting, even gay-friendly, and have strong LGBTQI+ protections such as safeguards that preserve individuals' rights to marriage and employment. Other countries have poor LGBTQI+ rights and offer fewer protections. In the world's most homophobic countries, LGBTQI+ lifestyles may be illegal and punishable by prison sentences, lashings, or the death penalty.

The topic of LGBTQI+ rights is broad and multifaceted. Because of this breadth, determining each country's level of LGBTQI+ support requires the comparison of many indicators, ranging from whether gay marriage is legal to whether LGBTQI+ individuals are accepted by the general population or subjected to discrimination and possible vigilante violence. Three of the most reputable metrics that track LGBTQI+ rights are UCLA University's Global Acceptance Index (GAI), the Equaldex Equality Index (EEI), and the Asher & Lyric LGBTQI+ Travel Safety Index (TSI). In all three of these rankings, higher scores are preferable.

Top 10 Countries with the Best LGBTQI+ Rights:

1IcelandIceland [tie 1-3]Canada
2NetherlandsCanada [tie 1-3]Sweden
3NorwayIsle of Man [tie 1-3]Netherlands
4SwedenNorway [tie 4-6]Malta
5CanadaDenmark [tie 4-6]Portugal
6SpainUruguay [tie 4-6]United Kingdom
7DenmarkNetherlands [tie 7-8]Norway
8IrelandAndorra [tie 7-8]Belgium
9United KingdomUnited Kingdom [tie 9-11]Spain
10New ZealandAustralia [tie 9-11]France
11AustraliaGermany [tie 9-11]Iceland

When examining the lower end of the rankings to seek out the worst countries for LGBTQI+ rights, it may also be worthwhile to note the possibility of capital punishment. As of 2022, six countries' legal codes specifically prescribe the death penalty for the "crime" of homosexuality and another five countries allow for the possibility of the death penalty.

Top 11 Countries with the Worst LGBTQI+ Rights:

RankGAIEEITSIDeath Penalty
2TajikistanBrunei [tie 2-4]NigeriaSaudi Arabia
3ZimbabweSomalia [tie 2-4]KuwaitBrunei
4SomaliaAfghanistan [tie 2-4]Saudi ArabiaMauritania
7MauritaniaLibyaMalawiUnited Arab Emirates
9JordanUnited Arab Emirates [tie 9-10]SomaliaSomalia
10MoldovaGambia [tie 9-10]LibyaQatar
11ZambiaSudan/Egypt [tie 11-12]AfghanistanPakistan

Definitions and variations of LGBT and LGBTQ+

LGBT and LGBTQI+ have several additional variations, including LGBTQ, LGBTQI, LGBTQIA, LGBTQIA+, and 2SLGBTQIA+ (Two-spirit, lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, queer, questioning, intersex, and asexual, with the + representing pansexual, agender, gender queer, bigender, gender variant, and pangender).

While longer variations are arguably more inclusive than shorter versions with fewer specific mentions, in actual practice all variations nearly always refer to the broadest community and tend to be largely interchangeable (i.e., a reference to the LGBT community is not confined to only LGBT individuals and can instead be assumed to include the full non-heterosexual/non-cisgender community, just as LGBTQI+, 2SLGBTQIA+, and any other variations do). LGBTQI+ communities may also be described as having diverse SOGIESC, which the United Nations defines as having "sexual orientations, gender identities, gender expressions and/or sex characteristics that place them outside culturally mainstream categories".

LGBTQI+ Rights in the United States

The US has made significant strides in LGBTQI+ rights over the years, coding an increasing number of LGBTQI+ rights into national law. Two of the most notable advancements in LGBTQI+ rights in the US in recent decades are the legalization of gay marriage and the legalization of adoption of children by same-sex couples. Gay marriage legalization expanded from one state in 2004 to all fifty states in 2015 through federal court rulings, state court rulings, state legislation, and direct popular votes. The Supreme Court struck down all bans on same-sex adoption in 2016, legalizing it in all 50 states.

Despite these and other advancements, the United States still lags behind many other countries (especially in Northern Europe) in terms of establishing and protecting LGBTQI+ rights. One particular standout example is the United States' lack of an overarching federal law outlawing discrimination against LGBTQI+ individuals. This shortcoming has enabled many forms of LGBTQI+ discrimination (employment, housing, education) to remain a concern, especially in the Southern states.

The Equality Act would amend existing civil rights laws to explicitly state sexual orientation and gender identity as protected characteristics. By including this language, the Act would provide explicit non-discrimination protections for LGBTQI+ people nationwide and all areas of life such as housing, education, employment, public spaces and services, and federally funded programs among other things. The American Civil Liberties Union (ACLU) has been fighting for LGBTQI+ rights since 1936 and brings more LGBTQI+ cases than any other national organization.

LGBTQI+ Rights Around the World

LGBTQI+ rights vary greatly between countries. According to the International Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, Trans and Intersex Association's annual report State-Sponsored Homophobia, same-sex conduct was criminalized in 67 of the United Nations' 193 member states in 2020 and was de facto illegal in two more. In other countries, homosexuality is technically legal, but promotion of "nontraditional sexual relations", whether by organizations or individuals, is illegal.

In six countries with a strict interpretation of sharia law, consensual same-sex acts are punishable by death (usually by stoning). Moreover, another five countries have laws which are less specific in the outlawing and sentencing of homosexuality, but which leave the death penalty available.

Countries Where Consensual Same-Sex Acts Are Punishable by Death:

Explicitly PrescribedLegally Allowed
Saudi ArabiaUnited Arab Emirates

Conversion therapies: legal or not?

A handful of nations have outlawed conversion therapies nationwide: Brazil, Canada (some provinces), Ecuador, Mexico (some jurisdictions), Puerto Rico, and the United States (some states). Conversion therapy is also outlawed in some subnational divisions in certain countries: some of Canada's provinces, some of Mexico's jurisdictions, and roughly 50% of US states:

States Where Conversion Therapy is Banned:

ConnecticutNevadaRhode Island
DelawareNew HampshireUtah
HawaiiNew JerseyVermont
IllinoisNew MexicoVirginia
MaineNew YorkWashington
MarylandNorth Carolina*Wisconsin*

Note: * indicates a state in which state-funded conversion therapy is banned, but therapy may still be funded privately.

Laws against discrimination based upon sexual orientation

A growing number of countries are passing legal protections to prevent discrimination against LGBTQI+ individuals. 81 United Nations member states (42%), including most of Europe and South America, have taken steps to tackle sexual orientation-based discrimination in the workplace, and 57 UN members (30%) have passed broad anti-discrimination laws. Thus far, 6% of UN members (11 states) and one non-member territory have coded GLBTQI+ anti-discrimination protections into their constitutions: Bolivia, Cuba, Ecuador, Fiji, Kosovo, Malta, Mexico, Nepal, Portugal, San Marino, South Africa, Sweden

Laws regarding same-sex adoptions

As of 2020, 28 UN member states (14%, largely in North America and Europe) had legally established the right of same-sex GLBTQI+ couples to adopt children. Four additional member countries had authorized "second parent" adoption by same-sex couples (second parent adoptions are those in which one member of a same-sex couple adopts the child of the other member).

Same-sex marriage

in 2001, the Netherlands became the first country to legalize same-sex marriage. As of 2022, nearly 50 countries have followed suit, the most recent of which being Switzerland in 2022. Same-sex marriage is most often legalized in the Americas and Western Europe, and is less likely to be legal in Africa and Asia. A number of these states also recognize same-sex civil unions, including Peru, Greece, and Italy. Additionally, some countries do not allow their own GLBTQI+ citizens to marry, but do legally acknowledge same-sex marriages performed in other countries.

The World's Safest Countries for LGBTQ+ People

According to the LGBTQ+ Danger Index, below are the ten best and safest countries in the world for LGBTQI+ people. The index is created by compiling country-level data on a wide range of metrics related to LGBT rights, from the legality of same-sex marriage to propaganda laws and murder rates of transsexual individuals.


2022's friendliest nation for LGBTQI+ travelers is Canada, the first country outside of Europe (and the fourth country in the world) to legalize gay marriage, which it did on July 20, 2005. Same-sex couples can adopt children in Canada, same-sex marriage is legal, and the country has constitutional protections against discrimination of LGBTQI+ people. Canada has robust protections against multiple forms of discrimination the basis of sexual orientation, and only a few countries have a more progressive stance on legal recognition of gender identity.


Another of the world's most gay-friendly countries, Sweden has legalized both marriage and adoption for same-sex couples, installed anti-discrimination protections for both gender identity and sexual orientation, encoded constitutional protections against discrimination, and criminalized violence against LGBTQI+ people.


Like Sweden and Canada, the Netherlands has one of the world's most inclusive and progressive attitudes regarding LGBTQI+ rights. Same-sex marriage and adoption are both legal, anti-discrimination rules are written into the constitution, and employment protections defend against discrimination on the basis of both sexual orientation and gender identity. LGBTQI+ individuals can change their government-registered gender without undergoing gender reassignment surgery.


Same-sex couples in Malta are free to marry and adopt children, hate crimes against LGBTQI+ people are illegal, and more than 75% of all LGBTQI+ individuals surveyed feel the country is a good place for them to live. Malta is also one of very few countries with a trans murder rate of less than 0.1 per million residents.


Portugal became the sixth European country and the eighth country in the world to legalize gay marriage on May 17, 2010. In 2016, same-sex couples became eligible to adopt. Additionally, gays, lesbians, and bisexuals are all allowed to join the Portuguese military. The LGBTQI+ has constitutional protections against discrimination as well as worker protections for both sexual orientation and gender identity.

United Kingdom

On March 29, 2014, the UK legalized same-sex marriage. Laws to allow same-sex couples to adopt passed in England and Wales in 2005 and Scotland in 2009. Since 2000, LGBTQI+ people have been allowed to openly serve in the military and discrimination based on sexual orientation has been prohibited since 2010. The British military also grants same-sex couples the same rights to housing and allowances that opposite-sex couples enjoy.


Belgium was the second country in the world to legalize gay marriage (after the Netherlands). Same-sex couples have the same adoption rights as opposite-sex couples and LGBTQI+ individuals are not banned from the military. Belgium offers broad protections for LGBTQI+ people against discrimination and has worker protections for sexual orientation and gender identity.


Norway has legalized gay marriage and has worker protections for both sexual orientation and gender identity. Norway has broad protections for discrimination against the LGBTQI+ community, rather than constitutional protections, and has criminalized hate crimes against the LGBTQI+ community. Like Sweden and Canada, Norway allows for joint and second-parent adoption for same-sex couples.


Finishing the top ten list of the most LGBTQI+-friendly countries is Spain. In 2005, Spain legalized both same-sex marriage and same-sex adoption. Spain has nationwide worker protections for sexual orientation only; however, some autonomous communities in Spain have banned discrimination based on both sexual orientation and gender identity. Additionally, lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender people may serve openly in the Spanish Armed Forces.


On May 18, 2013, France became the 13th country to legalize gay marriage. Same-sex couples have also been legally able to adopt since the same-sex marriage law took effect. France offers worker protections for both sexual orientation and gender identity. Lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender individuals are allowed to serve openly in the military. In 2004, the National Assembly approved an amendment to existing anti-discrimination laws to include homophobic comments as illegal.


Same-sex marriage and same-sex adoption have been legal in Finland since March 1, 2017. Finland has worker protections for both sexual orientation and gender identity and has broad protections against discrimination.


Same-sex marriage was legalized in Iceland in 2010 by a unanimous vote to define marriage as between two individuals (with no specific gender requirements). Since 2006, same-sex couples have had equal access to adoption and IVF (in vitro fertilization) as opposite-sex couples. In 2018, Iceland passed a law banning employment discrimination based on sexual orientation, gender identity, gender expression, and sex characteristics.

  • Global Acceptance Index (GAI) is a measure of overall LGBTQ+ acceptance. GAI was devised by researchers at the Williams Institute at UCLA University. Higher scores are preferable.
  • Equaldex Equality Index (EEI) is a combined metric that calculated ""the current status of LGBT rights, laws, and freedoms as well as public attitudes towards LGBT people."" Higher scores are preferable.
  • The LGBTQI+ Travel Safety Index (TSI) combines several factors in ten categories. Higher scores are preferable.
  • Maximum penalties listed are those outlined by legal code. Individuals arrested for homosexual conduct are often subjected to additional mistreatment, from torture and forced anal exams by shady law enforcement officials to oversized sentences or extended pre-trial incarceration that can last for years.
  • Years listed indicate the first year the first protection was put in place. For example, Andorra has passed employment protections in 2003, 2009, and 2018, so 2003 is listed.
  • Countries that have not legalized same-sex marriage may still acknowledge same-sex marriages performed in other countries.
  • Countries marked ""varied"" include a wide range of regulations depending upon which state, province, or other subdivision one is evaluating.
  • Second-parent adoptions are those in which one member of a partnership adopts the child of the other member, thereby becoming the ""second parent

Download Table Data

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GAI Index
EEI Index 2023
TSI Index 2023
Consensual Same-Sex Acts
Death Penalty
Max Penalty
Same-Sex Unions
Same-Sex Marriages
Same-Sex Adoptions
Iceland9.7892330Legalized 1940NoLegalized 2010Legalized 2006
Netherlands9.4682374Legalized 1811Legalized 1998Legalized 2001Legalized 2001
Norway9.3888343Legalized 1972ReplacedLegalized 2009Legalized 2001
Sweden9.1877378Legalized 1944NoLegalized 2009Legalized 2003
Canada9.0283383Legalized 1969Legalized 1999Legalized 2005Legalized (1996-2011)
Spain8.7781341Legalized 1979Legalized 2011Legalized 2005Legalized 2005
Denmark8.6987307Legalized 1933ReplacedLegalized 2012Legalized 2010
Ireland8.4176294Legalized 1993ReplacedLegalized 2015Legalized 2015
United Kingdom8.3474347Legalized (various 1967-1982)Legalized 2005Legalized 2014Legalized 2005-2013
New Zealand8.2377323Legalized 1986Legalized 2005Legalized 2013Legalized 2013
Australia8.0379307Legalized 1975-1997VariedLegalized 2017Legalized 2002-2018
Malta8.0186369Legalized 1973Legalized 2014Legalized 2017Legalized 2014
Switzerland8.0069325Legalized 1942Legalized 2007Legalized 2022Second-parent only
Finland7.9680299Legalized 1971ReplacedLegalized 2017Legalized 2017
Belgium7.9577343Legalized 1795Legalized 1998Legalized 2003Legalized 2006
Uruguay7.9083306Legalized 1934Legalized 2008Legalized 2013Legalized 2009
Nepal7.8473181Legalized 2007NoNoNo
Luxembourg7.8279269Legalized 1795Legalized 2004Legalized 2015Legalized 2015
Germany7.7379259Legalized 1968-1969ReplacedLegalized 2017Legalized 2017
France7.7377338Legalized 1791Legalized 1999Legalized 2013Legalized 2013
Puerto Rico7.52210Legalized 2003NoLegalized 2016Legalized 2018
Andorra7.4882175Legalized 1990Legalized 2005NoLegalized 2014
United States7.4276267Legalized (various 1962-2003)VariedLegalized 2015Legalized 2015
Brazil7.2279223Legalized 1831Legalized 2011Legalized 2013Legalized 2010
Austria7.2075305Legalized 1971Legalized 2010Legalized 2019Legalized 2016
Argentina7.0776260Legalized 1903Legalized 2002Legalized 2010Legalized 2010
Italy6.9469168Legalized 1890Legalized 2016NoNo
Portugal6.8775358Legalized 1983Legalized 2001Legalized 2010Legalized 2016
Chile6.8380312Legalized 1999Legalized 2015PendingLegalized 2022
Cape Verde6.7865125Legalized 2004NoNoNo
Mexico6.5074173Legalized 1872VariedVariedVaried
Hong Kong6.3899Legalized 1991NoNoNo
Costa Rica6.3568197Legalized 1971NoLegalized 2020Legalized 2020
Slovenia6.2168242Legalized 1977Legalized 2005NoNo
Colombia6.1075241Legalized 1981Legalized 2011Legalized 2016Legalized 2015
Philippines6.065747Legalized 1870NoNoNo
South Africa6.0172292Legalized 1998Legalized 2006Legalized 2006Legalized 2002
Czech Republic5.8769185Legalized 1962Legalized 2006NoLimited
Singapore5.865218Illegal - 19382 yrs prisonNoNoNo
Thailand5.8162131Legalized 1957PendingNoPending
Cuba5.8078176Legalized 1979NoNoLegalized 2022
Taiwan5.7466188Legalized 1912Legalized 2015Legalized 2019Legalized 2023
Bahrain5.7336-15Legalized 1976NoNoNo
Israel5.6964220Legalized 1988Legalized 1994NoLegalized 2008
Nicaragua5.5743122Legalized 2008NoNoNo
Venezuela5.515034Legalized 1836NoNoNo
Ecuador5.4760228Legalized 1997Legalized 2008Legalized 2019No
Greece5.4468189Legalized 1951Legalized 2015NoLimited
Mauritius5.345115Illegal - 18385 yrs penal servitudeNoNoNo
India5.286077Legalized 2018NoNoNo
Panama5.283753Legalized 2008NoNoNo
Japan5.266683Legalized 1882VariedVariedNo
Estonia5.2566206Legalized 1992Legalized 2016NoSecond-parent only
Bolivia5.2460223Legalized 1832NoNoLegalized 2023
Syria5.2221Illegal - 19493 yrs prisonNoNoNo
El Salvador5.224418Legalized 1826NoNoNo
Cyprus5.1660192Legalized 1998Legalized 2015NoNo
Poland5.155582Legalized 1932PendingNoNo
Peru5.1560207Legalized 1924LimitedNoNo
Hungary5.0854136Legalized 1962Legalized 2009NoNo
Croatia5.0559254Legalized 1977Legalized 2014NoLegalized 2022
Vietnam4.995554Legal - never illegalNoNoNo
Dominican Republic4.98401Legalized 1822NoNoNo
Cambodia4.965294Legal - never illegalNoPendingNo
Namibia4.933848Illegal - 2004UnclearNoNoNo
Mozambique4.925287Legalized 2015NoNoNo
Laos4.894945Legal - never illegalNoNoNo
Slovakia4.8245186Legalized 1962NoNoNo
Paraguay4.743329Legalized 1990NoNoNo
Guatemala4.7139-6Legalized 1834NoNoNo
Trinidad and Tobago4.703771Legalized 2018NoNoNo
Suriname4.6438171Legalized 1869NoNoNo
South Korea4.534497Legal - never illegal2 yrs + labor (military only)NoNoNo
Barbados4.4363-93Illegal - 1992Life in prisonNoNoNo
Latvia4.4251109Legalized 1992NoNoNo
Lithuania4.3840145Legalized 1993PendingNoNo
Guyana4.3624-175Illegal - 1893Life imprisonmentNoNoNo
Botswana4.305098Legalized 2019NoNoNo
Algeria4.2813-75Illegal - 1966Three years imprisonment and a fine of 10,000 DinarsNoNoNo
Bulgaria4.1943128Legalized 1968NoNoNo
Lesotho4.184080Legalized 2012NoNoNo
Bhutan4.184816Illegal - 20041 yr prisonNoNoNo
Belize4.1461-12Legalized 2016NoNoNo
Myanmar4.1123-118Illegal - 186010 yrs prison + finesNoNoNo
Romania4.1048137Legalized 1996NoNoNo
Bahamas4.093050Legalized 1991NoNoNo
Macau4.0140Legalized 1996NoNoNo
Turkey3.943940Legalized 1858NoNoNo
Benin3.883210Legal - never illegalNoNoNo
Grenada3.882533Illegal - 195810 yrs prisonNoNoNo
Jamaica3.8324-132Illegal - 200910 years imprisonment with hard labourNoNoNo
Saint Lucia3.8022-75Illegal - 200410 yrs prisonNoNoNo
Libya3.7811-150Illegal - 1953 (updated 1976)5 yrs prisonNoNoNo
Serbia3.7147172Legalized 1994NoNoNo
Saint Kitts and Nevis3.7135-52Illegal - 200210 yrs w/w-out hard laborNoNoNo
China3.694631Legalized 1997PendingNoNo
Bangladesh3.6927-9Illegal - 1860Life in prisonNoNoNo
Uzbekistan3.6814-65Illegal - 19943 yrs prisonNoNoNo
Pakistan3.6630-93Illegal - 1860Death by stoningNoNoNo
Angola3.6660213Legalized 2021NoNoNo
Uganda3.6313-92Illegal - 2000Life imprisonmentNoNoNo
Lebanon3.6317-58Illegal - 1943Six years imprisonmentNoNoNo
Kenya3.6218-87Illegal - 1930 (updated 2003)14 yrs prisonNoNoNo
Kuwait3.6115-180Illegal - 19607 yrs + deportationNoNoNo
Saudi Arabia3.6014-177IllegalDeath penaltyNoNoNo
Dominica3.5619-57Illegal - 199812 years imprisonmentNoNoNo
Ivory Coast3.5524-25Legal - never illegalNoNoNo
Qatar3.547-137Illegal - 2004Death by stoningNoNoNo
Montenegro3.5353141Legalized 1977Legalized 2021NoNo
Antigua and Barbuda3.5243-67Illegal - 199515 yrs prisonNoNoNo
Malaysia3.4813-165Illegal - 193620 yrs + whippingNoNoNo
Comoros3.4716-56Illegal - 19815 yrs prison + finesNoNoNo
Yemen3.418-128Illegal - 1994Death (males), 3 yrs (females)NoNoNo
Morocco3.3911-89Illegal - 19633 yrs prison + finesNoNoNo
Tunisia3.3814-91Illegal - 20103 yrs prisonNoNoNo
Belarus3.382953Legalized 1994NoNoNo
Madagascar3.363526Legal - never illegalNoNoNo
DR Congo3.3223-27Legal - never illegalNoNoNo
Afghanistan3.321-147Illegal - 2018Death penaltyNoNoNo
Haiti3.322888Legalized 1791NoNoNo
Burundi3.3010-45Illegal - 20092 yrs prison + finesNoNoNo
Russia3.2816-2Legalized 1993NoNoNo
Tanzania3.2712-120Illegal - 1998Life imprisonmentNoNoNo
Republic of the Congo3.273216Legal - never illegalNoNoNo
Sri Lanka3.2328-91Illegal - 199510 yrs prisonNoNoNo
Palestine3.206-106Varied10 yrs prison (Gaza only)NoNoNo
Togo3.1516-45Illegal - 20153 yrs prisonNoNoNo
Sao Tome and Principe3.1547Legalized 2012NoNoNo
North Macedonia3.1345113Legalized 1996NoNoNo
Guinea3.0615-80Illegal - 20163 yrs prison + finesNoNoNo
Saint Vincent and the Grenadines3.0418-70Illegal - 198810 yrs prisonNoNoNo
Eswatini3.0223-46Illegal - 1907ImprisonmentNoNoNo
Sudan2.9912-109Illegal - 2020Life imprisonmentNoNoNo
Niger2.972714Legal - never illegalNoNoNo
Sierra Leone2.9716-63Illegal - 1861Life imprisonmentNoNoNo
Burkina Faso2.962923Legal - never illegalNoNoNo
Georgia2.9439122Legalized 2000NoNoNo
Ukraine2.914780Legalized 1991NoNoNo
Djibouti2.893515Legal - never illegalNoNoNo
Bosnia and Herzegovina2.8745123Legalized 1991-2003NoNoNo
Gabon2.803020Legalized 2020NoNoNo
Indonesia2.79163VariedEight years imprisonment and 100 lashesNoNoNo
Cameroon2.799-54Illegal - 20165 yrs prison + finesNoNoNo
Rwanda2.7727-29Legal - never illegalNoNoNo
Mali2.742912Legal - never illegalNoNoNo
South Sudan2.7317-126Illegal - 2008 (updatedFourteen years imprisonment and a fineNoNoNo
Chad2.7216-58Illegal - 20172 yrs prison + finesNoNoNo
Mongolia2.7143117Legalized 1961NoNoNo
Kazakhstan2.69283Legalized 1998NoNoNo
Ghana2.687-49Illegal - 1960 (updated 2003)3 yrs prisonNoNoNo
Liberia2.6520-39Illegal - 19781 yr prison + finesNoNoNo
Albania2.6545141Legalized 1995NoNoNo
Central African Republic2.6231-52Legal - never illegalNoNoNo
Egypt2.4811-96Illegal (as "debauchery") - 1961Three years imprisonment and a fine of 3,000 LiraNoNoNo
Gambia2.449-139Illegal - 1934 (updated 2014)Life imprisonmentNoNoNo
Nigeria2.184-190Illegal - 1959 (updated 2017)Death by stoningNoNoNo
Armenia2.172764Legalized 2003NoNoNo
Kyrgyzstan2.162632Legalized 1998NoNoNo
Iran2.114-104Illegal - 2003Death penaltyNoNoNo
Zambia2.0413-104Illegal - 1933Life imprisonmentNoNoNo
Moldova1.9135110Legalized 1995NoNoNo
Jordan1.8722-30Legalized 1951NoNoNo
Senegal1.8511-67Illegal - 19655 yrs prison + finesNoNoNo
Mauritania1.778-96Illegal - 1983Death by stoningNoNoNo
Malawi1.7513-163Illegal - 201114 yrs + forced laborNoNoNo
Ethiopia1.6310-93Illegal - 1957 (updated 2004)One year imprisonmentNoNoNo
Somalia1.597-150Illegal - 1964Death penaltyNoNoNo
Zimbabwe1.5721-52Illegal - 20041 yr prison + finesNoNoNo
Tajikistan1.563725Legalized 1998NoNoNo
Azerbaijan1.4227Legalized 2000NoNoNo
North Korea14Legal - never illegalNoNoNo
Papua New Guinea28-80Illegal - 197414 years imprisonmentNoNoNo
United Arab Emirates13-134Illegal - 1987 (updated 2016)Death penaltyNoNoNo
Turkmenistan8-65Illegal - 2019Two years imprisonmentNoNoNo
Oman6-145Illegal - 20183 yrs prisonNoNoNo
Eritrea8-75Illegal - 1957 (updated 2015)3 yrs prisonNoNoNo
Guinea Bissau47Legalized 1993NoNoNo
Equatorial Guinea4740Legal - never illegalNoNoNo
Timor Leste3110Legalized 1975NoNoNo
ReunionLegalized 1791Legalized 1999Legalized 2013Legalized 2013
Fiji6186Legalized 2010NoNoNo
Solomon Islands18-85Illegal - 196314 yrs prisonNoNoNo
Maldives14-100Illegal - 20148 yrs + 100 lashesNoNoNo
Brunei3-200Illegal - 2019Death by stoningNoNoNo
GuadeloupeLegalized 1816Legalized 1999Legalized 2013Legalized 2013
MartiniqueLegalized 1815Legalized 1999Legalized 2013Legalized 2013
MayotteLegal - never illegalLegalized 2006Legalized 2013Legalized 2013
Vanuatu48Legal - never illegalNoNoNo
French GuianaLegalized 1817Legalized 1999Legalized 2013Legalized 2013
French PolynesiaLegal - never illegalNoLegalized 2013Legalized 2013
New CaledoniaLegal - never illegalLegalized 2009Legalized 2013Legalized 2013
Samoa3948Illegal - 20135 years imprisonmentNoNoNo
Curacao50Legalized 1869NoNoNo
Guam289Legalized 1977NoLegalized 2015Legalized 2015
Kiribati31-70Illegal - 197714 yrs prisonNoNoNo
Micronesia54100Legal - never illegalNoNoNo
Tonga29-155Illegal - 198810 years imprisonmentNoNoNo
Seychelles5275Legalized 2016NoNoNo
Aruba138Legalized 1869Legalized 2016NoNo
United States Virgin Islands264Legalized 1985NoLegalized 2015Legalized 2015
Isle of ManLegalized 1992Legalized 2010Legalized 2016Legalized 2011
Cayman Islands59Legalized 2001Legalized 2020NoNo
BermudaLegalized 1994NoNoLegalized 2015
GreenlandLegalized 1933ReplacedLegalized 2016Legalized 2016
Faroe IslandsLegalized 1933NoLegalized 2017Legalized 2017
Northern Mariana Islands85Legalized 1983NoLegalized 2015Legalized 2015
Turks and Caicos Islands50Legalized 2001NoNoNo
Sint Maarten75Legalized 1869NoNoNo
American SamoaLegalized 1980NoNoNo
Marshall Islands62110Legalized 2005NoNoNo
Liechtenstein67217Legalized 1989Legalized 2011NoLegalized 2023
Monaco5361Legalized 1793Legalized 2020NoNo
San Marino68238Legalized 2004Legalized 2018NoSecond-parent only
GibraltarLegalized 1993Legalized 2014Legalized 2016Legalized 2014
Saint MartinLegalized 1791Legalized 1999Legalized 2013Legalized 2013
Palau30Legalized 2014NoNoNo
Cook IslandsIllegal - 1969variesNoNoNo
AnguillaLegalized 2001NoNoNo
Nauru51Legalized 2016NoNoNo
Tuvalu24-75Illegal - 196514 yrs prisonNoNoNo
Wallis and FutunaLegal - never illegalLegalized 2009Legalized 2013Legalized 2013
Saint BarthelemyLegalized 1878Legalized 1999Legalized 2013Legalized 2013
Saint Pierre and MiquelonLegalized 1814NoLegalized 2013Legalized 2013
MontserratLegalized 2001NoNoNo
Falkland IslandsLegalized 1989Legalized 2017Legalized 2017Legalized 2017
NiueLegalized 2007NoNoNo
TokelauLegalized 2007NoNoNo
Vatican City33Legalized 1890NoNoNo
showing: 230 rows

Which countries are the most gay-friendly?

Iceland is the most accepting of LGBT people on both the Global Acceptance Index and the Equaldex Equality Index. The Travel Safety Index places Canada as the most gay-friendly.

Frequently Asked Questions