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Proportional Representation

Mixed Member Proportional

Party List

Single Transferrable Vote

Click on a country for details.

Countries with Proportional Representation 2024

The search for better forms of government is an ongoing process that has stretched back in time to the days of democracy’s foundations in ancient Athens. One of the more popular forms of government that has survived this journey is the establishment of proportional representation. Below, let us look at those countries that have adopted such a system as the best way to express their voices in the electoral process.

Types of Proportional Representation

Different types of proportional representation abound across the spectrum of nations that use this vehicle for political representation. Typically speaking, a proportional representation is normally seen within those countries operating a Parliamentary system.

Party List Representation

Candidate lists are defined by political parties that are then voted on by voters in the list’s entirety. Once ballots are cast, the relative nod for each list translates into how many candidates from each list is elevated to the elected position.

Ranked Choice Selection

As opposed to simply voting for the single best candidate on the ballot, In a ranked choice selection process, voter’s votes are adjusted as candidates are elected or eliminate from contention. The system seeks to form consensus among surviving candidates.

Mixed Compensatory Systems

Seeks to combine local elections with compensatory national or regional party=list elections. Voters are afforded two votes, one for their single-member district, as well as a vote for the larger party list. This system allows for parties that are underrepresented at the district level will have those numbers bolstered by the party list vote.

Biproportional Apportionment

This system seeks to provide proportionality in two separate realms. Specifically, it attempts to divide the vote results proportionally by both region as well as by party status.

  • Many countries' electoral systems could arguably fit into multiple categories.

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Proportional Representation
AustraliaSingle Transferrable Vote
IrelandSingle Transferrable Vote
MaltaSingle Transferrable Vote
IndonesiaParty List
BrazilParty List
TurkeyParty List
South AfricaParty List
ColombiaParty List
SpainParty List
AlgeriaParty List
ArgentinaParty List
PolandParty List
MoroccoParty List
AngolaParty List
MozambiqueParty List
PeruParty List
CameroonParty List
Burkina FasoParty List
Sri LankaParty List
KazakhstanParty List
ChileParty List
RomaniaParty List
EcuadorParty List
GuatemalaParty List
NetherlandsParty List
CambodiaParty List
RwandaParty List
BeninParty List
BurundiParty List
TunisiaParty List
BelgiumParty List
Dominican RepublicParty List
HondurasParty List
SwedenParty List
Czech RepublicParty List
GreeceParty List
PortugalParty List
IsraelParty List
TogoParty List
AustriaParty List
SwitzerlandParty List
NicaraguaParty List
SerbiaParty List
ParaguayParty List
BulgariaParty List
El SalvadorParty List
DenmarkParty List
SlovakiaParty List
FinlandParty List
NorwayParty List
PalestineParty List
Costa RicaParty List
LebanonParty List
CroatiaParty List
UruguayParty List
MoldovaParty List
Bosnia and HerzegovinaParty List
AlbaniaParty List
ArmeniaParty List
NamibiaParty List
Guinea BissauParty List
SloveniaParty List
North MacedoniaParty List
LatviaParty List
Equatorial GuineaParty List
Timor LesteParty List
EstoniaParty List
CyprusParty List
FijiParty List
GuyanaParty List
LuxembourgParty List
SurinameParty List
MontenegroParty List
Cape VerdeParty List
IcelandParty List
Sao Tome and PrincipeParty List
ArubaParty List
GreenlandParty List
Faroe IslandsParty List
Sint MaartenParty List
LiechtensteinParty List
MonacoParty List
San MarinoParty List
MexicoMixed Member Proportional
GermanyMixed Member Proportional
ThailandMixed Member Proportional
South KoreaMixed Member Proportional
NepalMixed Member Proportional
BoliviaMixed Member Proportional
TajikistanMixed Member Proportional
HungaryMixed Member Proportional
New ZealandMixed Member Proportional
LesothoMixed Member Proportional
showing: 93 rows

How many countries have proportional representation?

93 countries have adopted proportional representation in some way or another.

Frequently Asked Questions