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Countries with Proportional Representation 2023

The search for better forms of government is an ongoing process that has stretched back in time to the days of democracy’s foundations in ancient Athens. One of the more popular forms of government that has survived this journey is the establishment of proportional representation. Below, let us look at those countries that have adopted such a system as the best way to express their voices in the electoral process.

Types of Proportional Representation

Different types of proportional representation abound across the spectrum of nations that use this vehicle for political representation. Typically speaking, a proportional representation is normally seen within those countries operating a Parliamentary system.

Party List Representation

Candidate lists are defined by political parties that are then voted on by voters in the list’s entirety. Once ballots are cast, the relative nod for each list translates into how many candidates from each list is elevated to the elected position.

Ranked Choice Selection

As opposed to simply voting for the single best candidate on the ballot, In a ranked choice selection process, voter’s votes are adjusted as candidates are elected or eliminate from contention. The system seeks to form consensus amongst surviving candidates.

Mixed Compensatory Systems

Seeks to combine local elections with compensatory national or regional party=list elections. Voters are afforded two votes, one for their single-member district, as well as a vote for the larger party list. This system allows for parties that are underrepresented at the district level will have those numbers bolstered by the party list vote.

Biproportional Apportionment

This system seeks to provide proportionality in two separate realms. Specifically, it attempts to divide the vote results proportionally by both region as well as by party status.

Which countries have proportional representation?

The countries that have adopted some sort of proportional representation include Albania, Algeria, Angola, Argentina, Armenia, Aruba, Australia, Austria, Belgium, Benin, Bolivia, Bosnia And Herzegovina, Brazil, Bulgaria, Burkina Faso, Burundi, Cambodia, Cape Verde, Chile, Costa Rica, Croatia, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, El Salvador, Equatorial Guinea, Estonia, Faroe Islands, Fiji, Finland, Germany, Greece, Greenland, Guatemala, Guinea Bissau, Guyana, Honduras, Iceland, Indonesia, Ireland, Israel, Italy, Japan, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Latvia, Lebanon, Lesotho, Liechtenstein, Malta, Montenegro, Mozambique, Namibia, Nepal, Netherlands, New Zealand, Norway, Paraguay, Peru, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Rwanda, San Marino, Sao Tome And Principe, Serbia, Sint Maarten, Slovakia, Slovenia, South Africa, Spain, Sri Lanka, Suriname, Sweden, Switzerland, Taiwan, Togo, Tunisia, Turkey, Ukraine, Uruguay.

How many countries have proportional representation?

81 countries have adopted proportional representation in some way or another.

Frequently Asked Questions