The search for better forms of government is an ongoing process that has stretched back in time to the days of democracy’s foundations in ancient Athens. One of the more popular forms of government that has survived this journey is the establishment of proportional representation. Below, let us look at those countries that have adopted such a system as the best way to express their voices in the electoral process.
Albania Algeria Angola Argentina Armenia Aruba Australia Austria Belgium Benin Bolivia Bosnia and Herzegovina Brazil Bulgaria Burkina Faso Burundi Cambodia Cape Verde Chile Columbia Costa Rica Croatia Cyprus Czech Republic Denmark Dominion Republic East Timor El Salvador Equatorial Guinea Estonia European Union Faroe Islands Fiji Finland Germany Greece Greenland Guatemala Guinea-Bissau Guyana Honduras Iceland Indonesia Ireland Israel Italy Kazakhstan Kosovo Kyrgyzstan Latvia Lebanon Lesotho Liechtenstein Luxemburg Macedonia Malta Moldovia Montenegro Mozambique Namibia Netherlands New Zealand Nepal Northern Ireland Norway Paraguay Peru Poland Portugal Romania Rwanda San Marino Sao Tome and Principe Serbia Sint Maarten Slovakia Slovenia South Africa Spain Sri Lanka Suriname Sweden Switzerland Taiwan Togo Tunisia Turkey Japan Ukraine Uruguay
Types of Proportional Representation
Different types of proportional representation abound across the spectrum of nations that use this vehicle for political representation. Typically speaking, a proportional representation is normally seen within those countries operating a Parliamentary system.
Party List Representation
Candidate lists are defined by political parties that are then voted on by voters in the list’s entirety. Once ballots are cast, the relative nod for each list translates into how many candidates from each list is elevated to the elected position.
Ranked Choice Selection
As opposed to simply voting for the single best candidate on the ballot, In a ranked choice selection process, voter’s votes are adjusted as candidates are elected or eliminate from contention. The system seeks to form consensus amongst surviving candidates.
Mixed Compensatory Systems
Seeks to combine local elections with compensatory national or regional party=list elections. Voters are afforded two votes, one for their single-member district, as well as a vote for the larger party list. This system allows for parties that are underrepresented at the district level will have those numbers bolstered by the party list vote.
This system seeks to provide proportionality in two separate realms. Specifically, it attempts to divide the vote results proportionally by both region as well as by party status.