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ECI

-3.00

-2.50

-2.00

-1.50

-1.00

-0.50

0.50

1.00

1.50

2.00

2.50

Click on a country for details.

Economic Complexity by Country 2024

Each year, the Harvard University Center for International Development's Growth Lab evaluates countries around the world for economic complexity. The Economic Complexity Index (ECI) examines how many products a country exports, as well as the complexity of those products, and then scores each country. Higher scores indicate a more complex export economy.

Japan has an ECI score of 2.27, which has not changed in the last five years. Its high score is a result of exports growing by 3.1% over the five-year period leading up to 2021, which saw Japan export $973 billion in products and services. It is followed by Switzerland at 2.14, Germany at 1.96, and South Korea at 1.95. The top 11 countries have ECI scores that changed very little between the years 2015 and 2020. Four counties had no change in score, five counties had their score increase by one, and two countries had their score decrease by one.

The United States is in twelfth position with a score of 1.47, having lost three points over that same five-year period. Although the products exported by the US are complex, this drop has to do with the lack of diversification among US exports. The ECI indicates that the economy will grow slowly over the next decade, putting the US in the bottom half of countries when ranked for growth.

The countries with the most positive change between 2015 and 2020 are Libya, Cambodia, Uzbekistan, and Trinidad and Tobago, all of which saw scores improve by at least twenty points. While Libya saw a decline in non-oil exports, overall, it saw exports grow by 27% over five years. Cambodia saw both overall and non-oil exports grow by 8% over five years, Uzbekistan saw growth of 15.5% for all exports and 17% for non-oil exports, and Trinidad and Tobago saw growth of 5.9% overall and 9.3% for non-oil exports. What links all of these countries together is the exceptional growth that outpaced the global average and exceeded expectations.

However, the United Arab Emirates, Botswana, and Mali all saw the most negative change in their ECI scores.

Notes:
- The Economic Complexity Index (ECI) is computed annually by the Harvard University Center for International Development's Growth Lab. Higher scores indicate greater economic complexity (export of more numerous and complex products), which is considered preferable.
- A complement to the ECI, the Complexity Outlook Index (COI) is a measure of how many complex products are near a country�s current set of capabilities. A high COI value indicates that the country's industries have the capabilty to manufacture a wide variety of complex products. Higher scores are preferable.

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Country
ECI
ECI Change Over 5 Years
COI
Data Year
Japan2.270-0.392020
Switzerland2.1410.912020
Germany1.96-1-2.202020
South Korea1.9500.782020
Singapore1.8700.642020
Czech Republic1.7810.162020
Austria1.70-1-0.152020
Sweden1.5900.872020
United Kingdom1.5410.922020
Hungary1.5410.862020
Slovenia1.5410.822020
United States1.47-30.432020
Slovakia1.4310.822020
Finland1.40-11.072020
Ireland1.352-0.052020
Italy1.3400.462020
China1.3040.632020
France1.29-30.972020
Romania1.2781.032020
Mexico1.22-20.682020
Israel1.1541.012020
Belgium1.13-31.332020
Malaysia1.1220.712020
Denmark1.12-11.142020
Thailand1.11-51.272020
Poland1.02-21.312020
Netherlands0.99-51.542020
Estonia0.9911.332020
Lithuania0.8671.322020
Philippines0.8400.182020
Belarus0.8311.152020
Croatia0.8021.332020
Spain0.77-42.272020
Portugal0.7611.982020
Latvia0.7151.282020
Bosnia and Herzegovina0.7030.972020
Serbia0.69-11.412020
Norway0.69-60.392020
Turkey0.6312.402020
Bulgaria0.6321.802020
Panama0.63-70.892020
Saudi Arabia0.6219-0.242020
Canada0.57-51.422020
Tunisia0.4630.492020
India0.4222.962020
Cyprus0.4212-0.172020
Lebanon0.33-41.122020
Costa Rica0.30-20.072020
Ukraine0.29-40.772020
Greece0.25100.962020
Russia0.2020.682020
Vietnam0.18120.642020
New Zealand0.17-3-0.042020
Kyrgyzstan0.16-30.472020
Trinidad and Tobago0.1320-0.742020
Bahrain0.11-12-0.762020
Eswatini0.08-1-0.522020
Jordan0.07-70.092020
North Macedonia0.0716-0.182020
Brazil0.03-110.692020
El Salvador0.02-30.092020
Dominican Republic-0.02110.092020
Moldova-0.047-0.252020
Colombia-0.06-50.132020
Indonesia-0.07-51.972020
Uruguay-0.07-11-0.382020
Mauritius-0.071-0.042020
Georgia-0.084-0.212020
Egypt-0.09-31.502020
South Africa-0.15-150.892020
Qatar-0.188-1.022020
Sri Lanka-0.19130.452020
Cambodia-0.2024-0.382020
Albania-0.2115-0.022020
Argentina-0.22-100.082020
Chile-0.24-5-0.522020
Armenia-0.24-8-0.732020
Uzbekistan-0.26210.062020
Oman-0.2716-0.892020
Morocco-0.3313-0.102020
Kazakhstan-0.335-0.402020
Guatemala-0.34-60.502020
Paraguay-0.367-0.802020
Jamaica-0.36-6-0.822020
Iran-0.39-17-0.172020
Kuwait-0.41-3-1.102020
Uganda-0.4700.472020
Pakistan-0.49130.372020
Laos-0.4918-0.502020
Kenya-0.52-80.532020
Australia-0.52-10-0.292020
Namibia-0.53-14-0.632020
Bangladesh-0.6018-1.032020
Tajikistan-0.6116-1.062020
Senegal-0.65-6-0.442020
Honduras-0.65-15-0.362020
Ethiopia-0.7011-0.632020
Burkina Faso-0.72-4-0.982020
United Arab Emirates-0.73-36-1.062020
Togo-0.79-8-0.672020
Libya-0.7927-1.142020
Nicaragua-0.8010-0.602020
Turkmenistan-0.8016-1.172020
Madagascar-0.811-0.702020
Peru-0.83-5-0.272020
Myanmar-0.8515-0.282020
Zambia-0.86-11-1.032020
Algeria-0.8818-1.222020
Yemen-0.89-5-1.092020
Bolivia-0.909-0.922020
Tanzania-0.95-30.372020
Mongolia-0.9512-1.152020
Malawi-0.96-16-1.072020
Zimbabwe-0.96-7-1.132020
Botswana-0.96-31-1.232020
Mozambique-0.989-0.862020
Ghana-1.02-15-1.052020
Mali-1.02-30-1.102020
Ecuador-1.10-4-1.112020
Cuba-1.16-17-1.322020
Azerbaijan-1.24-5-1.342020
DR Congo-1.27-2-1.152020
Mauritania-1.276-1.342020
Ivory Coast-1.35-10-1.142020
Venezuela-1.372-1.292020
Papua New Guinea-1.477-1.222020
Cameroon-1.62-15-1.242020
Republic of the Congo-1.64-6-1.242020
Nigeria-1.733-1.272020
Gabon-1.830-1.242020
Guinea-1.91-7-1.282020
Liberia-2.24-15-1.272020
Angola-2.51-2-1.262020
showing: 133 rows

Which country has the highest economic complexity?

Japan ranks on the Economic Complexity Index, ECI, indicating the highest degree of economic complexity worldwide.

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