Kosovo, officially known as the Republic of Kosovo, is a partially-recognized state located in southeast Europe. Kosovo is partially recognized because of its territorial dispute with the Republic of Serbia. Kosovo declared its independence from Serbia on February 17, 2008. Serbia’s initial reactions to Kosovo’s independence included indicting Kosovo’s leaders on charges of high treason, litigating the case at the International Court of Justice, and recalling ambassadors from countries that recognized Kosovo.
In December 2012, Serbian Prime Minister Ivica Dačić agreed to appoint a liaison officer to Kosovo as a result of European Union (EU) negotiations on Kosovo’s status. In April 2013, Kosovo and Serbia reached an agreement, known as the Brussels Agreement, to normalize their relations and allow both nations to eventually join the EU. The agreement stated that Belgrade, the capital of Serbia, recognized Pristina, the capital of Kosovo, as having administrative power over Kosovo and that Belgrade will deal with Pristina as a legitimate governing authority. In June of that year, Kosovo and Serbia exchanged liaison officers.
Progress on the Brussels Agreement stalled in 2018 when Kosovo imposed a 100% tax on all imported Serbian goods. Kosovo withdrew the tax on April 1, 2020. As of March 2020, Kosovo has received 115 diplomatic recognitions as an independent state, 15 of which have been withdrawn. 97 out of 193 United Nations members, 22 out of 27 EU members, 26 out of 30 NATO members, and 34 out of 57 Organization of Islamic Cooperation member state have recognized Kosovo.
Countries that Recognize Kosovo as an Independent State
Below are the countries that recognize Kosovo as an independent, sovereign state. Countries are in order of their recognition.
The following countries recognized Kosovo in 2008: Costa Rica (February 17), United States (February 18), France (February 18) Afghanistan (February 18), Albania (February 18), Turkey (February 18), United Kingdom (February 18), Australia (February 19), Senegal (February 19), Germany (February 20), Latvia (February 20), Denmark (February 21), Estonia (February 21), Italy (February 21), Luxembourg (February 21), Peru (February 22), Belgium (February 24), Poland (February 26), Switzerland (February 27), Austria (February 27), Ireland (February 29), Sweden (March 4), the Netherlands (March 4), Iceland (March 5), Slovenia (March 5), Finland (March 7), Japan (March 18), Canada (March 18), Monaco (March 19), Hungary (March 19), Croatia (March 19), Bulgaria (March 20), Liechtenstein (March 25), South Korea (March 28), Norway (March 28), Marshall Islands (April 17), Nauru (April 23), Burkina Faso (April 24), Lithuania (May 6), San Marino (May 11), Czech Republic (May 21), Liberia (May 30), Sierra Leone (June 13), Colombia (August 6), Belize (August 7), Malta (August 21), Samoa (September 15), Portugal (October 7), Montenegro (October 9), Macedonia (October 9), United Arab Emirates (October 14), Malaysia (October 30), and the Federated States of Micronesia (December 5).
The following countries recognized Kosovo in 2009: Panama (January 16), Maldives (February 19), Palau (March 6), Gambia (April 7), Saudi Arabia (April 20), Comoros (May 14), Bahrain (May 19), Jordan (July 8), Dominican Republic (July 11), New Zealand (November 11), and Malawi (December 16). The following countries recognized Kosovo in 2010: Mauritania (January 12), Eswatini (Swaziland) (April 12), Vanuatu (April 28), Djibouti (May 12), Somalia (May 19), Honduras (September 3), Kiribati (October 21), and Tuvalu (November 18). The following countries recognized Kosovo in 2011: Qatar (January 4), Guinea-Bissau (January 14), Oman (February 4), Andorra (June 8), Central African Republic (July 22), Niger (August 16), Guinea-Conakry (August 16), Benin (August 17), Saint Lucia (August 19), Gabon (September 9), and Nigeria (September 12).
The following countries recognized Kosovo in 2012: Ghana (January 23), Haiti (February 10), Brunei (April 25), Chad (June 1), Timor-Leste (September 20), Papua New Guinea (October 3), Burundi (October 16), Fiji (November 19), Saint Kitts and Nevis (November 28), Dominica (December 11), and Pakistan (December 24). The following countries recognized Kosovo in 2013: Guyana (March 16), Tanzania (May 29), Yemen (June 11), Egypt (June 26), El Salvador (June 29), Thailand (September 24), Grenada (September 25), and Libya (September 25). The following countries recognized Kosovo in 2014: Tonga (January 15), Lesotho (February 11), Mali (July 7), Togo (July 11), and Solomon Islands (August 13). Antigua and Barbuda recognized Kosovo on May 20, 2015.
In 2016, Suriname (July 8) and Singapore (December 1) recognized Kosovo, followed by Bangladesh (February 27) and Madagascar (November 11) in 2017. In 2018, Barbados recognized Kosovo on February 15th. Three other entities have recognized Kosovo: the Republic of China (Taiwan), the Cook Islands, and Niue.Of those that have recognized Kosovo, the following countries have withdrawn recognition: Suriname, Burundi, Papua New Guinea, Lesotho, Comoros, Dominica, Grenada, Solomon Islands, Madagascar, Palau, Togo, Central African Republic, Ghana, Nauru, and Sierra Leone.