Countries With Presidents 2022

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A presidential system is a form of government, in which the head of government or chief executive is elected directly by the people. This head of government or chief executive is the president. In this system, there are three branches of government: executive, legislative, and judicial. All three branches are constitutionally independent of each other.

The presidential system has its origins in the United States Constitution of 1787, which created the office of the president as the head of state. Its inventors created it as an alternative to the parliamentary form of government. A directly elected president was its most significant difference; however, the president does not hold supreme power as a prime minister or parliament does. Many hold power in the presidential system so that no person or body can have supreme power.

A presidential system has some key characteristics that differentiate it from a parliamentary system. For example, in a presidential system, the president is popularly elected and holds office for a fixed term. The legislature may only remove the president by impeachment. Conversely, in the parliamentary system, the executive is named by the legislature, which also can remove the executive from his or her position without an impeachment process. Additionally, the executive of a presidential system encompasses the dual roles of head of state and head of government. In a parliamentary system, the head of state and the head of government are two separate roles of two different people.

Variations in Presidential Systems

Wide variations exist within presidential forms of government around the world. Presidential systems can be found in different forms in both democratic and nondemocratic nations. In non-democratic countries, political parties account for the adaptation of a presidential system. The party becomes a façade for a leader, his or her staff, and the bureaucracy. These countries, which include post-WWII communist regimes and those found in parts of sub-Saharan Africa, the Middle East, and Asia, are presidential in form because they have a single leader. Unlike in presidential systems, however, the president in nondemocratic presidential nations has acquired legitimacy through the party instead of through a popular election.

France has a presidential system with elements of a parliamentary system. The 1958 French constitution established both a president and a prime minister. The president is elected by the people and the president appoints the prime minister. The president has many powers, such as serving as the commander in chief of the military and appointing government officials, but has no political responsibility. Blame typically falls on the prime minister is policies go wrong. France is considered to be a semi-presidential system.

Countries with Presidents

The following countries have presidential systems Afghanistan, Angola, Argentina, Belarus, Benin, Bolivia, Brazil, Burundi, Cameroon, Central African Republic, Chad, Chile, Colombia, Comoroas, Costa Rica, Côte d’Ivoire, Cyprus, Djibouti, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, El Salvador, Equatorial Guinea, Gabon, Gambia, Ghana, Guatemala, Guinea, Guyana, Indonesia, Iran, Kazakhstan, Kenya, Liberia, Malawi, Maldives, Mexico, Nicaragua, Nigeria, Palau, Paraguay, Peru, Philippines, Rwanda, Senegal, Seychelles, Sierra Leone, South Korea, South Sudan, Tajikistan, Tanzania, Togo, Turkey, Turkmenistan, United States, Uruguay, Uzbekistan, Venezuela, Zambia, Zimbabwe.

The following countries have semi-presidential systems: Algeria, Azerbaijan, Burkina Faso, Cape Verde, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Republic of the Congo, East timor, Egypt, France, Guinea-Bissau, Haiti, Lithuania, Madagascar, Mali, Mauritania, Mongolia, Mozambique, Namibia, Niger, Palestine, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Russia, São Tomé and Prícipe, Sri Lanka, Tunisia, and Ukraine.

Countries With Presidents 2022

Country Type 2022 Population
United Statespresidential334,805,269
Indonesiapresidential279,134,505
Nigeriapresidential216,746,934
Brazilpresidential215,353,593
Mexicopresidential131,562,772
Philippinespresidential112,508,994
Iranpresidential86,022,837
Turkeypresidential85,561,976
Tanzaniapresidential63,298,550
Kenyapresidential56,215,221
Colombiapresidential51,512,762
South Koreapresidential51,329,899
Argentinapresidential46,010,234
Afghanistanpresidential40,754,388
Angolapresidential35,027,343
Uzbekistanpresidential34,382,084
Perupresidential33,684,208
Ghanapresidential32,395,450
Venezuelapresidential29,266,991
Cameroonpresidential27,911,548
Ivory Coastpresidential27,742,298
Malawipresidential20,180,839
Zambiapresidential19,470,234
Chilepresidential19,250,195
Kazakhstanpresidential19,205,043
Guatemalapresidential18,584,039
Ecuadorpresidential18,113,361
Senegalpresidential17,653,671
Chadpresidential17,413,580
Zimbabwepresidential15,331,428
Guineapresidential13,865,691
Rwandapresidential13,600,464
Beninpresidential12,784,726
Burundipresidential12,624,840
Boliviapresidential11,992,656
South Sudanpresidential11,618,511
Dominican Republicpresidential11,056,370
Tajikistanpresidential9,957,464
Belaruspresidential9,432,800
Togopresidential8,680,837
Sierra Leonepresidential8,306,436
Paraguaypresidential7,305,843
Nicaraguapresidential6,779,100
El Salvadorpresidential6,550,389
Turkmenistanpresidential6,201,943
Liberiapresidential5,305,117
Costa Ricapresidential5,182,354
Central African Republicpresidential5,016,678
Uruguaypresidential3,496,016
Gambiapresidential2,558,482
Gabonpresidential2,331,533
Equatorial Guineapresidential1,496,662
Cypruspresidential1,223,387
Djiboutipresidential1,016,097
Guyanapresidential794,045
Maldivespresidential540,985
Seychellespresidential99,426
Palaupresidential18,233
Russiasemi-presidential145,805,947
Egyptsemi-presidential106,156,692
DR Congosemi-presidential95,240,792
Francesemi-presidential65,584,518
Algeriasemi-presidential45,350,148
Ukrainesemi-presidential43,192,122
Polandsemi-presidential37,739,785
Mozambiquesemi-presidential33,089,461
Madagascarsemi-presidential29,178,077
Nigersemi-presidential26,083,660
Burkina Fasosemi-presidential22,102,838
Sri Lankasemi-presidential21,575,842
Malisemi-presidential21,473,764
Romaniasemi-presidential19,031,335
Tunisiasemi-presidential12,046,656
Haitisemi-presidential11,680,283
Azerbaijansemi-presidential10,300,205
Portugalsemi-presidential10,140,570
Republic of the Congosemi-presidential5,797,805
Palestinesemi-presidential5,345,541
Mauritaniasemi-presidential4,901,981
Mongoliasemi-presidential3,378,078
Lithuaniasemi-presidential2,661,708
Namibiasemi-presidential2,633,874
Guinea Bissausemi-presidential2,063,367
Timor Lestesemi-presidential1,369,429
Cape Verdesemi-presidential567,678

Countries With Presidents 2022

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