Germany is a Western European country with over 83.7 million people, making it the second-most populous country in Europe. Germany is a member of the European Union. Germany is a federal parliamentary republic led by a chancellor, and its capital city is Berlin. Germany is Europe's most robust economy and is considered one of the most innovative countries in the world. Germany is a member of the United Nations, NATO, the G7, the G20, and the OECD.
Hungary is a country in Central Europe and a member of the European Union. Hungary was once joined with Austria to form the Austro-Hungarian Empire, which collapsed after World War I. Today, Hungary is an independent state with its capital city of Budapest. Hungary currently has a population of over 9.6 million people; however, its population has been declining since the 1980s due to low birth rates. Hungary is a member of several international organizations, such as the United Nations, NATO, WTO, World Bank, the Council of Europe, and more. Hungary attracts more than 15 million tourists per year thanks to attractions like the largest thermal water cave system in the world, the second-largest thermal lake in the world, and its arts, music, and history.
Italy is a peninsular country in south-central Europe but is considered part of western Europe. Italy's capital is Rome. With about 60 million people, Italy is the third-most populous country in the European Union. Italy is one of the world's most advanced countries, with high life expectancy, quality of life, healthcare, and education. Italy is both a founding and leading member of the European Union. It is part of several international organizations such as the United Nations, NATO, the OECD, the WTO, the G7, the G20, and others. Italy is well known for its art, literature, music, philosophy, fashion, and cuisine.
Norway, officially known as the Kingdom of Norway, is a Nordic nation located in northwestern Europe. Norway occupies the western portion of the Scandinavian Peninsula. Norway's capital is Oslo, and the country's population is over 5.4 million people. Norway is not a member of the European Union. Norway is a welfare state with universal healthcare and a robust social security system. The country consistently ranks high on the World Happiness Report and has one of the lowest crime rates in the world. Additionally, Norway is a founding member of the United Nations, NATO, and the European Free Trade Association (among others) and a member of the World Trade Organization, the European Economic Area, and the OECD.
Paraguay is a country in South America that is one of only two landlocked countries on the continent. Paraguay's capital is Asunción, which is also one of the oldest cities in South America. Paraguay's population is around 7.1 million people. The country is an original member of the United Nations, the Organization of American States, the Non-aligned Movement, and the Lima Group. Paraguay is known to be one of the happiest countries in the world.
Turkey is a transcontinental country located mainly in Western Asia, with a small part of the country located on the Balkan Peninsula in southeastern Europe. Its population is over 84 million. Turkey's capital is Ankara, and its largest city is Istanbul, which is split between Asia and Europe. Although about 95% of Turkey is located in Asia, its political identity identifies the most with the West. For these reasons, it is difficult to determine whether Turkey is a part of Europe or Asia. Despite this, Turkey is a member of the Council of Europe and an associate member of the European Economic Community. Turkey is also a member of the United Nations, NATO, the IMF, the World Bank, and a founding member of the OECD and G20.
Uruguay is the second-smallest country in South America by area. Uruguay's population is estimated to be about 3.47 million people, 1.8 of whom live in the capital and largest city, Montevideo. The country is ranked first in Latin America for democracy, peace, low perception of corruption, and e-government (providing public services to citizens using technology) and first in South America for prosperity, the size of the middle class, and press freedom. Uruguay is one of the most socially advanced countries in Latin America with legal gay marriage and abortion, as well as legal production, sale, and consumption of cannabis.
Vatican City is an independent city-state located in Rome, Italy, and the smallest country globally. The official language is Italian. Vatican City is ruled by the pope, the bishop of Rome, and the Catholic Church's head. Vatican City is about 0.19 square miles (0.49 square kilometers) and has about 801 people. Vatican City does not have an airport or any highways but has a railway system, the shortest in the world.