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GGGI 2023

0.4

0.45

0.5

0.55

0.6

0.65

0.7

0.75

0.8

0.85

0.9

0.95

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Gender Equality by Country 2024

Gender equality, the concept that everyone should be treated equally regardless of their genetic or chosen gender, is an issue of both human dignity and respect. Many experts believe that gender equality across categories including education, employment, health, politics, and economic participation is not only a cultural responsibility, but a necessary and crucial part of the healthiest, most optimized economies. Sustainable development goals and other economic targets are often unachievable if half of a country’s population is hampered by restricted opportunities. In order to improve gender equality, many governments are implementing policies that provide talent development, diversify the leadership pool, and provide support to families and caregivers of every gender.

Global Gender Gap Index 2021

The World Economic Forum compiles and releases the Global Gender Gap Index every year. This report measures the extent of gender-based gaps among four key dimensions: Economic Participation and Opportunity, Educational Attainment, Health and Survival, and Political Empowerment, then gives each country a ranking between 0.000 (or 0%, the lowest possible gender equality) and 1.000 (100%, the highest possible gender equality). The analyses of each country are intended to serve as a basis for designing effective measures for reducing gender gaps. The 2021 edition of the Global Gender Gap Index studied and ranked 156 countries and territories around the world.

Top 10 Countries with the Highest Gender Equality (2021 World Economic Forum)

Country
GGGI 2023
Iceland0.91
Norway0.88
Finland0.86
New Zealand0.86
Germany0.81
Sweden0.81
Nicaragua0.81
Namibia0.8
Lithuania0.8
Belgium0.8

The top ten countries for gender equality include four Nordic countries: Iceland, Norway, Finland, and Sweden; as well as their European neighbors Ireland, Switzerland, and Lithuania (the lone Eastern European country); the Asian Pacific country New Zealand; and two Sub-Saharan African countries, Rwanda and Namibia. Iceland retained its number one spot for the 12th year in a row, rising more than a full percentage point to 89.2%.

The 2021 report found that global gender parity actually decreased from 68.6% in 2019 to 68.0% in 2020, due in large part to the global ripple effect of the COVID-19 pandemic. Based upon current progress, the WEF predicts it would take 135.6 years to close the gender gap worldwide. The largest current gender gap appears in the Political Empowerment category, which widened by 2.4%, a concern supported by statistics such as the fact that 81 countries have never had a female head of state.

The second-largest gap appears in the Economic Participation and Opportunity category. The proportion of women among skilled professionals increased, and wage equality inched forward slightly—both positive developments—however, significant wage disparity persists, and the percentage of females in leadership roles remains imbalanced. Females also seem to have been more likely to lose jobs as a result of the pandemic and slower to regain those jobs once pandemic-related restrictions were lifted.

Educational Attainment gaps are relatively small on average (95% closed globally), with 37 countries achieving true gender parity, and the gap in Health and Survival is also 96% closed. While these percentages are encouraging, the report notes that both also seem stalled, with the last few percentage points seemingly just out of reach. Gender parity also varies significantly from one global region to another.

Global Regions with the Highest and Lowest Gender Parity:

RankCountryGender Parity
1Western Europe77.6%
2North America76.4%
3Latin America & Caribbean71.2%
4Eastern Europe & Central Asia71.1%
5East Asia and Pacific68.9%
6Sub-Saharan Africa67.2%
7South Asia62.3%
8Middle East & North Africa60.9%

10 Countries with the Least Gender Equality (and Largest Gender Gaps):

Country
GGGI 2023
Afghanistan0.41
Chad0.57
Algeria0.57
Pakistan0.57
Iran0.57
Mali0.6
DR Congo0.61
Oman0.61
Benin0.62
Guinea0.62

Of the ten countries at the bottom of the list, only Afghanistan and Mali are new. The remaining eight are returners from the previous index. Departing the bottom ten are Oman, whose GEI rose from 60.2% to 60.8%, and Lebanon, whose GEI rose from 59.9% to 63.8%, a very large increase for a single year. Political and economic opportunities are still extremely limited for women in many countries, particularly in the Middle East and Africa.

  • The World Economic Forum's Global Gender Gap Index (GGGI) evaluates countries across a range of factors, which are then grouped into four categories (economics, education, health, and economics) and compiled into a single GGGI rating ranging from 0 to 1.
  • Higher GGGI scores are preferable.
  • The Global Gender Gap Report (GGGR) skipped a year in 2019.

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Country
GGGI 2023
GGGI 2023 Economics
GGGI 2023 Education
GGGI 2023 Health
GGGI 2023 Politics
Iceland0.910.80.990.960.9
Norway0.880.80.990.960.77
Finland0.860.7810.970.7
New Zealand0.860.7310.970.72
Germany0.810.670.990.970.63
Sweden0.810.810.960.5
Nicaragua0.810.6410.980.63
Namibia0.80.7810.980.44
Lithuania0.80.770.990.980.47
Belgium0.80.7310.970.49
Ireland0.80.7310.960.48
Rwanda0.790.70.960.970.54
Latvia0.790.7810.970.42
Costa Rica0.790.680.90.970.12
United Kingdom0.790.7310.960.47
Philippines0.790.7910.970.41
Spain0.790.7210.970.47
Albania0.790.7910.960.42
Moldova0.790.8610.980.31
South Africa0.790.6810.980.5
Switzerland0.780.70.980.960.49
Estonia0.780.7710.980.38
Denmark0.780.7310.960.43
Jamaica0.780.890.990.970.26
Mozambique0.780.690.90.980.54
Australia0.780.740.990.970.41
Chile0.780.640.940.970.11
Netherlands0.780.6810.960.46
Slovenia0.770.7610.970.36
Canada0.770.7410.970.37
Barbados0.770.860.990.970.26
Mexico0.770.60.990.970.49
Portugal0.770.740.990.970.35
Peru0.760.680.960.960.45
Burundi0.760.810.940.980.32
Argentina0.760.6410.980.43
Cape Verde0.760.750.980.980.33
Serbia0.760.710.970.38
Liberia0.760.90.90.960.29
France0.760.7210.970.34
Belarus0.750.820.990.980.22
Colombia0.750.660.950.970.08
United States0.750.780.990.970.25
Luxembourg0.750.7110.960.32
Zimbabwe0.750.80.990.980.21
Eswatini0.740.840.980.980.18
Tanzania0.740.710.960.970.31
Austria0.740.6910.970.3
Singapore0.740.770.990.970.22
Madagascar0.740.80.980.970.2
Ecuador0.740.710.970.28
Suriname0.740.740.990.980.23
Honduras0.730.710.960.28
Laos0.730.850.960.970.14
Bolivia0.730.660.980.960.32
Croatia0.730.6410.980.3
Brazil0.730.670.990.980.26
Panama0.720.6710.970.25
Bangladesh0.720.440.940.960.55
Poland0.720.710.980.21
Kazakhstan0.720.7710.97746
Armenia0.720.7210.950.21
Slovakia0.720.7210.980.18
Botswana0.720.8110.980.09
Bulgaria0.710.740.990.980.15
Ukraine0.710.7110.980.17
El Salvador0.710.620.990.980.27
Uruguay0.710.7310.980.15
Montenegro0.710.7110.970.18
Malta0.710.6410.960.25
United Arab Emirates0.710.540.990.960.36
Ethiopia0.710.590.850.970.43
Vietnam0.710.750.980.950.17
Thailand0.710.50.990.980.1
North Macedonia0.710.610.960.28
Kenya0.710.790.860.970.21
Georgia0.710.710.970.16
Uganda0.710.620.920.980.3
Italy0.70.620.990.970.24
Dominican Republic0.70.710.980.14
Mongolia0.70.740.990.980.1
Lesotho0.70.6510.980.18
Israel0.70.8910.960.15
Kyrgyzstan0.70.6910.980.13
Zambia0.70.730.980.980.1
Bosnia and Herzegovina0.70.60.980.970.24
Indonesia0.70.690.970.970.18
Romania0.70.6910.980.12
Togo0.70.570.840.980.17
Belize0.70.7210.980.09
Cambodia0.690.710.980.980.11
Paraguay0.690.6910.970.13
Cameroon0.690.690.90.970.21
Greece0.690.680.990.970.14
Timor Leste0.690.770.980.960.25
Brunei0.690.7610.950.06
Azerbaijan0.690.7710.940.07
Hungary0.690.70.990.980.08
Mauritius0.690.640.990.980.15
Ghana0.690.880.970.980.12
Czech Republic0.690.6410.980.13
Malaysia0.680.6610.970.1
Bhutan0.680.710.960.960.09
South Korea0.680.60.980.980.17
Senegal0.680.470.930.970.35
China0.680.7310.940.37
Cyprus0.680.650.990.960.11
Vanuatu0.680.740.990.970.01
Burkina Faso0.680.710.890.980.13
Malawi0.680.60.90.980.22
Tajikistan0.670.620.940.970.16
Sierra Leone0.670.680.930.970.09
Bahrain0.670.560.990.960.15
Comoros0.660.660.680.970.11
Sri Lanka0.660.560.990.980.13
Nepal0.660.480.920.970.28
Guatemala0.660.580.980.980.09
Angola0.660.60.740.980.3
Kuwait0.650.5810.970.06
Gambia0.650.610.950.970.07
Myanmar0.650.60.980.970.05
Ivory Coast0.650.60.640.980.14
Fiji0.650.5910.960.05
Maldives0.650.510.980.960.14
Japan0.650.5610.970.06
Jordan0.650.540.990.960.09
India0.640.3710.950.25
Tunisia0.640.450.980.97197
Turkey0.640.80.950.970.11
Nigeria0.640.710.830.970.04
Saudi Arabia0.640.520.990.960.08
Lebanon0.630.540.980.970.02
Qatar0.630.510.980.950.07
Egypt0.630.420.940.970.17
Niger0.620.570.770.960.18
Morocco0.620.40.950.960.17
Guinea0.620.580.710.970.22
Benin0.620.530.80.970.16
Oman0.610.490.960.960.05
DR Congo0.610.6810.980.52
Mali0.60.490.780.960.19
Pakistan0.570.360.820.960.15
Iran0.570.340.960.960.03
Algeria0.570.320.950.960.07
Chad0.570.540.990.970.5
Afghanistan0.410.190.480.95
showing: 146 rows

Download Table Data

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Country
GGGI 2022
GGGI 2021
GGGI 2020
GGGI 2018
GGGI 2017
Iceland0.9080.8920.8770.8580.878
Finland0.860.8610.8320.8210.823
Norway0.8450.8490.8420.8350.83
New Zealand0.8410.840.7990.8010.791
Sweden0.8220.8230.820.8220.816
Rwanda0.8110.8050.7910.8040.822
Nicaragua0.810.7960.8040.8090.814
Namibia0.8070.8090.7840.7890.777
Ireland0.8040.80.7980.7960.794
Germany0.8010.7960.7870.7760.778
Lithuania0.7990.8040.7450.7490.742
Costa Rica0.7960.7860.7820.7490.727
Switzerland0.7950.7980.7790.7550.756
Belgium0.7930.7890.750.7380.739
France0.7910.7840.7810.780.778
Spain0.7880.7880.7950.7460.746
Moldova0.7880.7680.7570.7330.74
Albania0.7870.770.7690.7340.728
Philippines0.7830.7840.7810.7990.79
South Africa0.7820.7810.780.7550.756
Austria0.7810.7770.7440.7190.71
United Kingdom0.780.7750.7670.7740.77
Serbia0.7790.780.7360.730.727
Burundi0.7770.7690.7450.7410.755
Canada0.7720.7720.7720.7710.769
Latvia0.7710.7780.7850.7580.756
United States 0.7690.7630.7240.720.718
Netherlands0.7670.7620.7370.7470.737
Portugal0.7660.7750.7440.7330.735
Barbados0.7650.7690.7490.7530.75
Denmark0.7640.7680.7820.7780.777
Mexico0.7640.7570.7540.7210.692
Argentina0.7560.7520.7460.7330.732
Mozambique0.7520.7580.7240.7210.741
Guyana0.7520.728
Belarus0.750.7580.7460.7470.744
Jamaica0.7490.7410.7350.7240.717
Peru0.7490.7210.7140.720.719
Slovenia0.7440.7410.7430.7840.805
Ecuador0.7430.740.7290.7290.724
Panama0.7430.7380.730.7220.722
Bulgaria0.740.7460.7270.7560.756
Australia0.7380.7310.7310.730.731
Suriname0.7370.7290.7070.6950.689
Luxembourg0.7360.7260.7250.7120.706
Cape Verde0.7360.7160.7250.7020.686
Chile0.7360.7160.7230.7170.704
Madagascar0.7350.7250.7190.6910.692
Zimbabwe0.7340.7320.730.7220.717
Singapore0.7340.7270.7240.7070.702
Bolivia0.7340.7220.7350.7480.758
Laos0.7330.750.7310.7480.703
Estonia0.7330.7330.7510.7340.731
Montenegro0.7320.7320.710.7060.693
Georgia0.7310.7320.7080.6770.679
Timor Leste0.730.720.6620.6380.628
Kenya0.7290.6920.6710.70.694
Eswatini0.7280.7290.7030.6940.682
El Salvador0.7270.7380.7060.690.705
Israel0.7270.7240.7180.7220.721
Uganda0.7240.7170.7170.7240.721
Zambia0.7230.7260.731
Italy0.720.7210.7070.7060.692
Botswana0.7190.7160.7090.7150.72
Kazakhstan0.7190.710.710.7120.713
Tanzania0.7190.7070.7130.7050.7
Slovakia0.7170.7120.7180.6930.694
United Arab Emirates0.7160.7160.6550.6420.649
North Macedonia0.7160.7150.7110.7070.702
Mongolia0.7150.7160.7060.7140.713
Bangladesh0.7140.7190.7260.7210.719
Uruguay0.7110.7020.7370.7150.71
Colombia0.710.7250.7580.7290.731
Bosnia and Herzegovina0.710.7130.7120.7120.702
Czech Republic0.710.7110.7070.6930.688
Ethiopia0.710.6910.7050.6560.656
Poland0.7090.7130.7360.7280.728
Thailand0.7090.710.7080.7020.694
Liberia0.7090.6930.6850.6810.669
Ukraine0.7070.7140.7220.7080.705
Paraguay0.7070.7020.6830.672
Honduras0.7050.7160.7220.7060.711
Vietnam0.7050.7010.70.6980.698
Malta0.7030.7030.6940.6860.682
Dominican Republic0.7030.6990.70.7010.697
Lesotho0.70.6980.6950.6930.695
Kyrgyzstan0.70.6810.6890.6910.691
Hungary0.6990.6880.6770.6750.67
Romania0.6980.70.7240.7110.708
Armenia0.6980.6730.6840.6780.677
Indonesia0.6970.6880.70.6910.691
Togo0.6970.6830.6150.618
Cyprus0.6960.7070.6920.6840.684
Brazil0.6960.6960.6910.6810.684
Belize0.6950.6990.6710.6620.692
Cameroon0.6920.6920.6860.7140.689
Nepal0.6920.6830.680.6710.665
Cambodia0.690.6840.6940.6840.676
Greece0.6890.6890.7010.6960.692
South Korea0.6890.6870.6720.6570.65
Azerbaijan0.6870.6880.6870.680.676
China0.6820.6820.6760.6730.674
Malaysia0.6810.6770.6780.6760.67
Brunei 0.680.6780.6860.6860.671
Mauritius0.6790.6790.6650.6630.664
Myanmar0.6770.6810.6650.690.691
Fiji0.6760.6740.6780.6690.638
Ghana0.6720.6660.6730.6880.695
Sierra Leone0.6720.6550.6680.661
Sri Lanka0.670.670.680.6760.669
Vanuatu0.670.6250.638
Senegal0.6680.6840.6840.6820.684
Guatemala0.6640.6550.6660.6680.667
Tajikistan0.6630.650.6260.6380.678
Burkina Faso0.6590.6510.6350.6290.646
Japan0.650.6560.6520.6630.657
Maldives0.6480.6420.6460.6620.669
Guinea0.6470.660.6420.6560.66
Lebanon0.6440.6380.60.5960.596
Tunisia0.6430.6490.6440.6480.651
Gambia0.6410.6440.6280.6430.649
Jordan0.6390.6380.6230.6050.604
Turkey0.6390.6380.6350.6280.625
Nigeria0.6390.6270.6350.6210.641
Angola0.6380.6570.660.6330.64
Bhutan0.6370.6390.6350.6380.638
Saudi Arabia0.6360.6030.60.590.584
Egypt0.6350.6390.630.6140.608
Niger0.6350.63
Malawi0.6320.6710.6640.6620.672
Ivory Coast0.6320.6370.6060.6270.611
Bahrain0.6320.6320.630.6270.632
Kuwait0.6320.6210.650.630.628
Comoros0.631
India0.6290.6250.6680.6650.669
Morocco0.6240.6120.6050.6070.598
Qatar0.6170.6240.6290.6290.626
Benin0.6120.6530.6580.6540.652
Oman0.6090.6080.6020.605
Algeria0.6020.6330.6340.6290.629
Mali0.6010.5910.6210.5820.583
Chad0.5790.5930.5960.580.575
Iran0.5760.5820.5840.5890.583
DR Congo0.5750.5760.5780.582
Pakistan0.5640.5560.5640.550.547
Afghanistan0.4350.444
Trinidad and Tobago0.7490.756
Cuba0.7460.7460.7490.745
Croatia0.7330.720.7130.711
Bahamas0.7250.720.7410.743
Russia0.7080.7060.7010.696
Venezuela0.6990.7130.7090.706
Papua New Guinea0.6350.6350.678
Mauritania0.6060.6140.6070.614
Syria0.5680.5670.5680.568
Iraq0.5350.530.551
Yemen0.4920.4940.4990.516
showing: 157 rows

Gender Equality by Country 2024

Which country has most gender equality?

Many countries have great gender equality, but Iceland tops the list at 89.2%, according to the World Economic Forum.

Frequently Asked Questions

Sources