In some parts of the world, traditional gender roles are reversed, with women mostly in charge of all aspects of the civilization. Although not common, a handful of modern societies revolve around women. The Chinese ethnic group called the Mosuo gives children the mother's last name, and property and status are passed through the female side of the family. In West Sumatra, the Minangkabau community is organized and run by women who elect and depose a male chief. Further, female societies exist in Costa Rica, North East India, and New Guinea that see the females take on traditionally male gender roles.
While it is difficult to detail the gender roles in every individual country, traditional gender roles generally hold true for developing nations. New nations in areas like Africa, Asia, and South America find women in traditional gender roles with limited access to education. Women in these areas represent more than 60% of the illiterate population. Further, women in new nations are usually denied certain freedoms and rights, and it is more common to see women working in traditional roles like staying at home to care for children, cook, and clean the home. New nations also see a higher occurrence of child brides, early pregnancies, lack of proper medical treatment for women, and an increased amount of violence directed toward women because of weak punishment for offenders.
The role of men and women can vary significantly between different tribes and communities. Generally, tribes that have been integrated into modern society will still try to protect their traditional way of life. These modern tribal societies see men working in conventional gender roles as warriors or essential providers while women work to prepare food, clean, and have children. Patriarchal relationships are also polygamous in some regions. Further, there is usually a significant age gap between husband and wife.
Modern Western Communities
For the most part, western societies include areas like the United States, Canada, Europe, Australia, and New Zealand. Gender roles have progressed significantly in recent years. Just a century ago, gender roles between men and women were more patriarchal, with women playing the role of the mother working to keep the home clean and children protected. Now, modern-day dictates that men and women have the same access to education, healthcare, social resources, and career paths. It is quite possible for a woman to perform any job, even a role that was thought of as traditionally male. In western societies, women can be anything from an astronaut to an athlete and have the same exact rights and legal precedence as men.