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Middle-Income Countries 2024

A country's national income often has a massive impact on its level of human development and the overall quality of life its residents enjoy. The World Bank, an international organization dedicated to helping countries overcome poverty, examines the GNI (Gross National Income) per capita of each of the world's countries and territories, then sorts each into one of four World Bank Country Lending Groups: high-income, upper-middle-income, lower-middle income, and low-income. Upper-middle income countries and lower-middle income countries are known collectively as middle-income countries (MICs). In response to shifts in the global economy, the World Bank adjusts the boundary lines between the categories each July.

2022-2023 World Bank Country Lending Group guidelines (all values USD):

  • Low-income economies — 2021 GNI per capita of up to $1,085
  • Lower-middle-income economies — 2021 GNI per capita of $1,086 to $4,255
  • Upper-middle-income economies — 2021 GNI per capita of $4,256 to $13,205
  • High-income economies — 2021 GNI per capita of $13,206 or more

More than half of the world's countries are middle-income countries, which display a diverse range of regions, sizes, populations, and cultures. MICs are home to 75% of the world's population, including 62% of its poor, and produce one-third of the global GDP. Many MICs face similar challenges, which often include population growth that outpaces the development of infrastructure, a lack of investment capital and skilled workers, and government corruption and/or instability.

Middle-income countries are essential to global economic growth. Development and growth in MICs, according to the World Bank, can result in benefits including increased international trade, greater sustainable energy development, improved food and water security, and a reduction in border conflicts, which can ripple out to other countries as well. If evaluated using the United Nations' overarching Human Development Index, middle-income countries tend to classify as developing countries, ranking above least-developed countries (which typically correlate to low-income countries) but falling short of developed (high-income) countries.

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Lending Group
GNI per Capita, Atlas 2022 (current US$)
GNI per Capita, PPP 2022 (current INT$)
Most recent data year
PalauUpper Middle$13,42016,1202021
BulgariaUpper Middle$13,35032,7402022
VenezuelaUpper Middle$13,01016,9602014
Costa RicaUpper Middle$12,92023,3702022
ChinaUpper Middle$12,85021,2502022
RussiaUpper Middle$12,75035,5402022
Saint LuciaUpper Middle$12,40017,0502022
SeychellesUpper Middle$12,01028,3502022
MalaysiaUpper Middle$11,83032,4102022
ArgentinaUpper Middle$11,59026,0302022
MaldivesUpper Middle$10,88022,8402022
MexicoUpper Middle$10,82021,7902022
TurkeyUpper Middle$10,64037,0902022
MontenegroUpper Middle$10,48027,5702022
MauritiusUpper Middle$10,36026,4502022
KazakhstanUpper Middle$9,62027,3302022
SerbiaUpper Middle$9,29022,7202022
Saint Vincent and the GrenadinesUpper Middle$9,11016,8202022
GrenadaUpper Middle$9,07015,6102022
Dominican RepublicUpper Middle$9,05021,9202022
CubaUpper Middle$8,9202019
DominicaUpper Middle$8,43013,5002022
BrazilUpper Middle$8,14017,2702022
Bosnia and HerzegovinaUpper Middle$7,66019,8402022
GabonUpper Middle$7,53014,8702022
BotswanaUpper Middle$7,43017,8002022
Marshall IslandsUpper Middle$7,2708,1302022
LibyaUpper Middle$7,26023,6002022
ThailandUpper Middle$7,23020,0702022
BelarusUpper Middle$7,21021,7102022
TuvaluUpper Middle$7,1607,3102022
TurkmenistanUpper Middle$6,97015,0602019
South AfricaUpper Middle$6,78015,5902022
AlbaniaUpper Middle$6,77018,2602022
PeruUpper Middle$6,74014,0102022
North MacedoniaUpper Middle$6,66019,4302022
BelizeUpper Middle$6,63010,6702022
ColombiaUpper Middle$6,50019,4702022
EcuadorUpper Middle$6,30012,6202022
ArmeniaUpper Middle$5,96018,1402022
ParaguayUpper Middle$5,92015,5402022
JamaicaUpper Middle$5,76011,7002022
AzerbaijanUpper Middle$5,66016,6302022
GeorgiaUpper Middle$5,60018,7602022
MoldovaUpper Middle$5,50015,7802022
FijiUpper Middle$5,39013,8502022
GuatemalaUpper Middle$5,35010,6002022
IraqUpper Middle$5,27010,8302022
Equatorial GuineaUpper Middle$5,24012,7902022
NamibiaUpper Middle$5,01011,1902022
LebanonUpper Middle$4,97013,4002021
SurinameUpper Middle$4,97016,2602022
TongaUpper Middle$4,9307,1602021
El SalvadorUpper Middle$4,72010,4602022
PalestineUpper Middle$4,6108,1702022
IndonesiaUpper Middle$4,58014,2502022
JordanLower Middle$4,35011,0902022
UkraineLower Middle$4,26013,3502022
MongoliaLower Middle$4,26012,5302022
MicronesiaLower Middle$4,1404,2802022
EgyptLower Middle$4,10014,6002022
VietnamLower Middle$4,01012,8102022
IranLower Middle$3,98018,2302022
PhilippinesLower Middle$3,95010,7302022
Cape VerdeLower Middle$3,9508,6002022
AlgeriaLower Middle$3,92012,9502022
TunisiaLower Middle$3,83012,1502022
EswatiniLower Middle$3,7509,8302022
MoroccoLower Middle$3,6709,4102022
SamoaLower Middle$3,6605,9302022
VanuatuLower Middle$3,6503,7802022
Sri LankaLower Middle$3,61014,0402022
BoliviaLower Middle$3,4909,4602022
DjiboutiLower Middle$3,3106,0102022
BhutanLower Middle$3,29012,0702021
BangladeshLower Middle$2,8207,6902022
KiribatiLower Middle$2,8103,8702022
HondurasLower Middle$2,7506,2202022
Papua New GuineaLower Middle$2,7004,1802022
Ivory CoastLower Middle$2,6206,3402022
Sao Tome and PrincipeLower Middle$2,4004,1102022
IndiaLower Middle$2,3908,2302022
GhanaLower Middle$2,3806,4002022
LaosLower Middle$2,3108,6802022
Republic of the CongoLower Middle$2,2904,0502022
Solomon IslandsLower Middle$2,2102,6702022
UzbekistanLower Middle$2,1909,6402022
KenyaLower Middle$2,1705,6802022
NigeriaLower Middle$2,1605,7002022
NicaraguaLower Middle$2,0906,3802022
MauritaniaLower Middle$2,0806,2602022
Timor LesteLower Middle$1,9804,7402022
AngolaLower Middle$1,8806,4502022
ZimbabweLower Middle$1,7102,5502022
CambodiaLower Middle$1,6905,0702022
CameroonLower Middle$1,6404,3302022
SenegalLower Middle$1,6204,0602022
HaitiLower Middle$1,6103,3102022
ComorosLower Middle$1,6103,8502022
PakistanLower Middle$1,5606,2602022
KyrgyzstanLower Middle$1,4405,6702022
BeninLower Middle$1,4004,0202022
NepalLower Middle$1,3404,7502022
MyanmarLower Middle$1,2704,9102022
ZambiaLower Middle$1,2403,9802022
LesothoLower Middle$1,2303,1902022
TajikistanLower Middle$1,2105,6802022
TanzaniaLower Middle$1,2003,0502022
GuineaLower Middle$1,1902,8702022
showing: 109 rows

What are middle-income countries?

Middle-income countries have GNI per capita ranging from $1,190 to $13,420. Most of the world's population, 75%, lives in middle-income nations.

Frequently Asked Questions