Middle-Income Countries 2023

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A country's national income often has a massive impact on its level of human development and the overall quality of life its residents enjoy. The World Bank, an international organization dedicated to helping countries overcome poverty, examines the GNI (Gross National Income) per capita of each of the world's countries and territories, then sorts each into one of four World Bank Country Lending Groups: high-income, upper-middle-income, lower-middle income, and low-income. Upper-middle income countries and lower-middle income countries are known collectively as middle-income countries (MICs). In response to shifts in the global economy, the World Bank adjusts the boundary lines between the categories each July.

2022-2023 World Bank Country Lending Group guidelines (all values USD):

  • Low-income economies — 2021 GNI per capita of up to $1,085
  • Lower-middle-income economies — 2021 GNI per capita of $1,086 to $4,255
  • Upper-middle-income economies — 2021 GNI per capita of $4,256 to $13,205
  • High-income economies — 2021 GNI per capita of $13,206 or more

Lower-Middle-Income Economy Countries:

Algeria Ghana Micronesia Sao Tome and Principe
Angola Haiti Mongolia Senegal
Bangladesh Honduras Morocco Solomon Islands
Benin India Myanmar Sri Lanka
Bhutan Indonesia Nepal Tajikistan
Bolivia Iran Nicaragua Tanzania
Cambodia Ivory Coast Nigeria Timor-Leste
Cameroon Kenya Pakistan Tunisia
Cape Verde Kiribati Palestine Ukraine
Comoros Kyrgyzstan Papua New Guinea Uzbekistan
Djibouti Laos Philippines Vanuatu
Egypt Lebanon Republic of the Congo Vietnam
El Salvador Lesotho Samoa Zimbabwe
Eswatini Mauritania

Upper-Middle-Income Economy Countries:

Albania Cuba Kazakhstan Paraguay
American Samoa Dominica Kosovo Peru
Argentina Dominican Republic Libya Russia
Armenia Ecuador Malaysia Saint Lucia
Azerbaijan Equatorial Giunea Maldives Saint Vincent and the Grenadines
Belarus Fiji Marshall Islands Serbia
Belize Gabon Mauritius South Africa
Bosnia and Herzegovina Georgia Mexico Suriname
Botswana Grenada Moldova Thailand
Brazil Guatemala Montenegro Tonga
Bulgaria Guyana Namibia Turkey
China Iraq North Macedonia Turkmenistan
Colombia Jamaica Palau Tuvalu
Costa Rica Jordan

More than half of the world's countries are middle-income countries, which display a diverse range of regions, sizes, populations, and cultures. MICs are home to 75% of the world's population, including 62% of its poor, and produce one-third of the global GDP. Many MICs face similar challenges, which often include population growth that outpaces the development of infrastructure, a lack of investment capital and skilled workers, and government corruption and/or instability.

Middle-income countries are essential to global economic growth. Development and growth in MICs, according to the World Bank, can result in benefits including increased international trade, greater sustainable energy development, improved food and water security, and a reduction in border conflicts, which can ripple out to other countries as well. If evaluated using the United Nations' overarching Human Development Index, middle-income countries tend to classify as developing countries, ranking above least-developed countries (which typically correlate to low-income countries) but falling short of developed (high-income) countries.

Middle-Income Countries 2023

Middle-Income Countries 2023

Note: All values display 2021 data (released 2023) with the following exceptions: Bhutan, Iran, Palau, and Tonga display 2020 data and Cuba displays 2018 data.

Middle-Income Countries 2023