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Tax to GDP Ratio

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Tax to GDP Ratio by Country 2024

Taxes are a critical part of keeping most countries' governments and economies functioning properly. But tax burdens can vary dramatically, especially when considered along with the size of an economy, otherwise known as gross domestic product (GDP.)

The tiny Pacific island nation of Nauru has the highest tax-to-GDP ratio at 48.2%, meaning the government collects taxes equivalent to roughly half the nation's overall economy. Denmark takes second place with 35.5%. Third, fourth, and fifth places aren't far behind, with Seychelles (31.5%), Lesotho (30.8%), and Kiribati (30.1%.) Among the top ten highest ratios of taxes to GDP, three are in Europe (Denmark, the United Kingdom, and Sweden), three are in Africa (Seychelles, Lesotho, and Namibia), and three are in the Pacific Islands/Australia region (Nauru, Kiribati, and New Zealand), with Barbados representing the Caribbean. These countries achieve these elevated ratios either through having a small economy or by collecting relatively high taxes to fund social services, healthcare, and other programs. The latter is prevalent in Europe, which sees the highest tax-to-GDP ratios of any continent.

Other nations collect just a minuscule fraction of their GDP in taxes. The United Arab Emirates is the world's lowest at just 0.5%. Iraq collects just 1.3%, and Kuwait just 1.5%. The rest of the bottom 10 sit between 4.2% (Bahrain) and 7.2% (Zimbabwe.) Middle Eastern nations make up much of the bottom ten. Many of these countries enjoy extensive income from state-owned energy companies, allowing them to bill residents next to nothing in taxes while still providing necessary public services. Others may be relatively poor and lack the resources to effectively tax and collect from residents. The United States sits below the global average with a tax-to-GDP ratio of 11.2%, similar to Germany and Malaysia.

In some cases, these ratios should be taken with a grain of salt, primarily due to the lack of recent data for some nations. A few, like Gambia, Guinea, and Niger, only have data from the 1990s or earlier.

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Country
Tax to GDP Ratio
Data Year
Nauru44.32020
Denmark35.52021
Lesotho32.42021
Seychelles31.52018
New Zealand28.82021
Namibia282021
Barbados27.52016
Kiribati27.42021
Sweden27.32021
United Kingdom26.42021
Luxembourg26.12021
South Africa25.92021
Austria25.82021
Norway25.72021
Jamaica25.72020
Italy25.52021
Greece25.32021
Samoa252021
Netherlands24.82021
Israel24.62021
Malta24.22021
Cyprus24.12021
France242021
Saint Vincent and the Grenadines23.82017
Mozambique23.32021
Belgium23.32021
Australia23.12021
Botswana22.22021
Armenia222021
Latvia21.82021
Georgia21.72021
Palestine21.62021
Iceland21.62021
Hungary21.52021
Lithuania21.42021
Estonia21.42021
Belize21.22017
Finland20.72021
Serbia20.62021
Bulgaria20.62021
Croatia20.22021
Tunisia20.12012
Solomon Islands202021
Macau19.92021
Chile19.62021
Morocco19.52021
Trinidad and Tobago19.52018
El Salvador19.42021
Poland19.22021
Portugal19.22021
Ukraine19.12021
Bosnia and Herzegovina19.12021
Nicaragua18.92021
Palau18.62020
Uruguay18.52020
Moldova18.42021
Slovakia18.32021
Slovenia18.32021
Mauritius18.32021
Gambia18.21990
Albania18.22021
Saint Lucia18.22017
Cape Verde17.82017
North Macedonia17.62021
Nepal17.52021
Senegal17.52021
Kyrgyzstan17.52021
Ireland17.52021
San Marino17.32021
Marshall Islands17.22020
Bolivia172007
Mongolia16.92021
Zambia16.72021
Cambodia16.42021
Peru16.12021
Jordan162020
Burkina Faso15.92021
Fiji15.92021
Spain15.22021
Rwanda15.12020
Timor Leste15.12021
Romania152021
Saint Kitts and Nevis152020
Uzbekistan14.82020
Honduras14.82020
Colombia14.42021
Dominican Republic14.42021
Brazil14.32021
Thailand14.32021
Mali14.22020
Philippines14.12021
Costa Rica14.12021
Bahamas142021
Vanuatu142020
Mexico13.92021
Burundi13.61999
Togo13.62019
Czech Republic13.42021
Azerbaijan13.42021
Kenya13.32021
Canada13.32021
Singapore13.12021
Bhutan132020
Ecuador12.92021
Ivory Coast12.62021
Egypt12.52015
Uganda12.52021
Liberia12.52013
India122018
Belarus122020
Papua New Guinea11.92020
Niger11.81980
Tanzania11.72018
Russia11.62021
Japan11.61993
Guatemala11.62021
Argentina11.52021
Gabon11.52019
Malawi11.42021
Ghana11.32020
United States11.22021
Germany11.22021
Malaysia11.22021
Cameroon10.92020
Guinea10.81992
Benin10.81979
DR Congo10.71989
Switzerland10.32021
Madagascar10.22021
Angola10.12019
Afghanistan9.92017
Tajikistan9.82004
Paraguay9.82021
Guinea Bissau9.52019
Kazakhstan9.42021
Indonesia9.12021
Pakistan9.12000
Republic of the Congo9.12020
Maldives9.12009
Saudi Arabia8.22020
Central African Republic8.22021
China8.12020
Panama82020
Bangladesh7.62021
Iran7.42009
Sudan7.42016
Sri Lanka7.42021
Zimbabwe7.22018
Myanmar6.42019
Micronesia6.42020
Ethiopia6.22020
Lebanon5.72021
Equatorial Guinea5.42021
Bahrain4.22004
Kuwait1.51998
Iraq1.32019
United Arab Emirates0.52021
Somalia2020
showing: 158 rows

Which country has highest tax-to-GDP ratio?

With a tax-to-GDP ratio of 48.20, the country with the highest ratio is the country of Nauru. Denmark is in second place with a radio of 35.50

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