Periphery Countries 2021

Hover overClick on a tile for details.
Population

The world-systems theory is an approach to world history and social change developed by sociologist Immanuel Wallerstein. It suggests a world economic system exists that some countries benefit from and others are exploited, emphasizing the social structure of global inequality.

The world-systems theory is established on a three-level hierarchy of countries:

  • Core
  • Periphery
  • Semi-periphery

The core consists of nations dominating the world and having a dominant economic relationship with the semi-periphery and periphery nations. Core countries are capitalist countries that exploit periphery countries for labor and raw materials. They usually have strong militaries and are not dependent on any other country for support or aid. Core countries are powerful, allowing them to exploit other nations for low-priced raw goods and

The world system theory is essential in understanding the core countries’ motives for imperialization and other involvements in semi-periphery and periphery nations. European capitalism became the core of this system.

Periphery Countries

Periphery countries are on the opposite of the economic scale from core countries. They are less developed than the core and semi-periphery countries and usually receive a disproportionately small global wealth share. These countries lack a strong central government and state institutions and may be controlled by other states.

Unfortunately, periphery countries face obstacles such as unstable government, poor education, lack of health care systems, and lack of technology. These factors further set them behind other countries. Wars and insufficient infrastructure often plague these countries as well. All of these factors confine periphery countries to their current level of development and wealth.

These countries have low-skill, labor-intensive production and are exploited by core countries for their cheap labor. Periphery countries generally specialize in one single industry, leaving their economy unstable and limiting international investment. They are also dependent on core countries for capital and export raw materials to them. This dependency on core countries helps the core countries remain dominant globally and can prevent periphery countries from progressing. This is known as dependency theory, where resources flow from a poor, undeveloped nation to a wealthy nation enriches the wealthy nation at the expense of the poor.

Periphery countries have low scores on the Human Development Index (HDI). The Human Development Index uses indicators such as life expectancy, per capita income, and education. The index ranks countries on a scale from 0 to 1.0, with 1.0 being the highest human development. There are four tiers of the HDI:

  • Very high human development (0.8-1.0)
  • High human development (0.7-0.79)
  • Medium human development (0.55-.70)
  • Low human development (below 0.55)

About half of the periphery countries are in the medium and low human development tiers.

Below is a list of the world’s periphery countries, according to sociologist Salvatore Babones.

Periphery Countries 2021

Loading...

Periphery Countries 2021

* Countries are chosen using Human Development Index.
Country Human Development Index 2021 Population
Afghanistan0.49839,835,428
Albania0.7852,872,933
Algeria0.75444,616,624
Andorra0.85877,355
Angola0.58133,933,610
Antigua And Barbuda0.7898,731
Argentina0.82545,605,826
Armenia0.7552,968,127
Azerbaijan0.75710,223,342
Bahamas0.807396,913
Bahrain0.8461,748,296
Bangladesh0.608166,303,498
Barbados0.8287,711
Belarus0.8089,442,862
Belize0.708404,914
Benin0.51512,451,040
Bhutan0.612779,898
Bolivia0.69311,832,940
Bosnia And Herzegovina0.7683,263,466
Botswana0.7172,397,241
Brazil0.759213,993,437
Brunei0.853441,532
Bulgaria0.8136,896,663
Burkina Faso0.42321,497,096
Burundi0.41712,255,433
Cambodia0.58216,946,438
Cameroon0.55627,224,265
Cape Verde0.654561,898
Central African Republic0.3674,919,981
Chad0.40416,914,985
Chile0.84319,212,361
China0.7521,444,216,107
Colombia0.74751,265,844
Comoros0.503888,451
Costa Rica0.7945,139,052
Croatia0.8314,081,651
Cuba0.77711,317,505
Cyprus0.8691,215,584
Djibouti0.4761,002,187
Dominica0.71572,167
Dominican Republic0.73610,953,703
Dr Congo0.45792,377,993
Ecuador0.75217,888,475
Egypt0.696104,258,327
El Salvador0.6746,518,499
Equatorial Guinea0.5911,449,896
Eritrea0.443,601,467
Eswatini0.5881,172,362
Ethiopia0.463117,876,227
Fiji0.741902,906
Gabon0.7022,278,825
Gambia0.462,486,945
Georgia0.783,979,765
Ghana0.59231,732,129
Greece0.8710,370,744
Grenada0.772113,021
Guatemala0.6518,249,860
Guinea0.45913,497,244
Guinea Bissau0.4552,015,494
Guyana0.654790,326
Haiti0.49811,541,685
Honduras0.61710,062,991
Hungary0.8389,634,164
India0.641,393,409,038
Indonesia0.694276,361,783
Iran0.79885,028,759
Iraq0.68541,179,350
Ivory Coast0.49227,053,629
Jamaica0.7322,973,463
Jordan0.73510,269,021
Kazakhstan0.818,994,962
Kenya0.5954,985,698
Kiribati0.612121,392
Kuwait0.8034,328,550
Kyrgyzstan0.6726,628,356
Laos0.6017,379,358
Latvia0.8471,866,942
Lebanon0.7576,769,146
Lesotho0.522,159,079
Liberia0.4355,180,203
Libya0.7066,958,532
Lithuania0.8582,689,862
Madagascar0.51928,427,328
Malawi0.47719,647,684
Malaysia0.80232,776,194
Maldives0.717543,617
Mali0.42720,855,735
Marshall Islands0.70859,610
Mauritania0.524,775,119
Mauritius0.791,273,433
Mexico0.774130,262,216
Micronesia0.627116,254
Moldova0.74,024,019
Mongolia0.7413,329,289
Montenegro0.814628,053
Morocco0.66737,344,795
Mozambique0.43732,163,047
Myanmar0.57854,806,012
Namibia0.6472,587,344
Nepal0.57429,674,920
Nicaragua0.6586,702,385
Niger0.35425,130,817
Nigeria0.532211,400,708
Oman0.8215,223,375
Pakistan0.562225,199,937
Palau0.79818,169
Palestine0.6865,222,748
Panama0.7894,381,579
Papua New Guinea0.5449,119,010
Paraguay0.7027,219,638
Peru0.7533,359,418
Philippines0.699111,046,913
Poland0.86537,797,005
Portugal0.84710,167,925
Qatar0.8562,930,528
Republic Of The Congo0.6065,657,013
Romania0.81119,127,774
Russia0.816145,912,025
Rwanda0.52413,276,513
Saint Kitts And Nevis0.77853,544
Saint Lucia0.747184,400
Saint Vincent And The Grenadines0.723111,263
Samoa0.713200,149
Sao Tome And Principe0.589223,368
Saudi Arabia0.85335,340,683
Senegal0.50517,196,301
Serbia0.7878,697,550
Seychelles0.79798,908
Sierra Leone0.4198,141,343
Slovakia0.8555,460,721
Solomon Islands0.546703,996
South Africa0.69960,041,994
South Sudan0.38811,381,378
Sri Lanka0.7721,497,310
Sudan0.50244,909,353
Suriname0.72591,800
Syria0.53618,275,702
Tajikistan0.659,749,627
Tanzania0.53861,498,437
Thailand0.75569,950,850
Timor Leste0.6251,343,873
Togo0.5038,478,250
Tonga0.726106,760
Trinidad And Tobago0.7841,403,375
Tunisia0.73511,935,766
Turkey0.79185,042,738
Turkmenistan0.7066,117,924
Uganda0.51647,123,531
Ukraine0.75143,466,819
United Arab Emirates0.8639,991,089
Uruguay0.8043,485,151
Uzbekistan0.7133,935,763
Vanuatu0.603314,464
Venezuela0.76128,704,954
Vietnam0.69498,168,833
Yemen0.45230,490,640
Zambia0.58818,920,651
Zimbabwe0.53515,092,171

Periphery Countries 2021