Mongolia Population 2020

3,265,563

Mongolia is a landlocked country in Central Asia, and the region has been ruled by many nomadic empires over its history, including Genghis Khan, who founded the Mongol Empire. In 2015, estimates put the population at 2,992,908 people, while this number been estimated to be 3.28 million in 2020.

Mongolia Area and Population Density

The vast East Asian country of Mongolia shares its borders with China and Russia and covers 604,600 square miles (1,566,000 square kilometers) of area, which ranks 18th in the world in terms of size. According to data from the CIA World Factbook, Mongolia had a population of 3,171,860 as of 2019, which is a very small figure considering the countries size. Most of the country is mountainous and uninhabitable, giving it the spot as the least densely populated nation on the planet with just 5 people per square mile (2 people per square kilometer).

Largest Cities in Mongolia

Nearly three-quarters of the Mongolian population lives in or around a major city, most of which is concentrated in one place. Approximately 45% of the country's population resides in the capital city of Ulan Bator (also called Ulaanbaatar), boasting a population of 1.34 million according to data from 2014. Originally established as a nomadic Buddhist monastic center in 1639, it became permanently settles in 1778. This city is the only one in the country that has a population of more than 100,000. Erdenet, Mongolia's second-largest city, has a population of just around 95,000 and the third-largest city of Darkhan is home to roughly 75,000.

Mongolia Demographics

Nearly 95% of the population is comprised of ethnic Mongols, consisting of the Khalkha and other groups distinguished by dialects of the language. The Khalkha people make up 86% of the ethnic Mongols in the country, and the remaining 14% is comprised of Oirats, Buryats and a few others. Turkic people account for 4.5% of the population, with the remaining 0.5% being people of Russia, Chinese, Korea and the United States.

The official language of the country is Mongolian, which is spoken by approximately 95% of the population. The population of the country as a whole is relatively young, with the average age being 27.5 years. About 59% of Mongolia's residents are under the age of 30, while over a quarter of that population is under the age of 14. The young population, coupled with a growth rate of 1.31%, has put a strain on the country's economy.

Mongolia Religion, Economy and Politics

Mongolia is a religiously free and diverse country with several of the world's major religions having a presence. By far the most prevalent is Buddhism, which claims 53.2% of the population. Buddhism was brought the country in the 1200s by the Yuan dynasty. The Buddhists of Mongolia have had an increased interest in their religion in recent years with increased attendance at temples and a strong interest in meditation within the public at large. Atheists and agnostics make up the second-largest group with 38.4% of the population. Christianity, Mongolian Shamanism, and Islam all makeup between an additional 2-3% of the population.

In the years since Mongolia became a democracy, the economy has been flourishing compared to what it once was. The GDP has tripled in the past 25 years and there has been a dramatic increase in the quality of education and medical practices in the country. Mongolia has many natural resources and the mining of copper, coal, molybdenum, tin, tungsten, and gold make up a good portion of the country's industry. Banking in Mongolia is fairly monopolized between five major banks that hold nearly all of the country's assets.

Mongolia Population History

Mongol tribes were united and Genghis Khan set out to conquer the region to create the world's largest empire in the 13th century. Khan's reign was short-lived, and Ming troops removed Mongols from Dadu, a city which is modern-day Beijing by 1368. Inner Mongolia was created in 1636 after the Qing empire conquered southern Mongols. Outer Mongolia was created in 1691 when the empire offered protection to northern Mongols.

The Qing Empire fell in 1911, and Outer Mongolia declared its independence, which was quickly occupied by the Chinese army. In 1921, with help from the Soviets, Mongolians were able to drive out Chinese forces to create the "people's government," which was a politically correct way of saying they were forming a socialist government. Japanese and Manchukuo forces invaded the area in 1939 but were defeated by the Mongolians and Soviets in the Battle of Halhyn Gol.

Political parties were not legalized in Mongolia until 1990 when a new constitution was written calling for basic human rights and freedoms; Democratic elections followed shortly afterward. Five died and hundreds were injured in politically charged riots in 2008. Extreme cold in 2010 killed a huge amount of livestock, creating food shortages and forcing civilians to clean and collect carcasses to maintain sanitary living conditions.

Mongolia Population Growth

The annual growth rate in Mongolia has been at a stable number over 1% since the early 2000s, but is currently on somewhat of a downward trend, and was 1.42% as of 2019. Contributing factors to this have been stable, but low numbers of negative net migration and a stable birth rate of 2.76 children born to the average Mongolian woman, which has stabilized following a steep decline in the period between 2000 and 2005. It's estimated that 32% of the population lives below the poverty line, with one-quarter of Mongolians living on less than $1.25 US a day.

Mongolia Population Projections

It is believed that the trend in declining growth rate will continue in the years to come, dropping nearly an entire percentage point by the year 2050. Net migration is expected to remain around -3,000 annually, which is fairly negligible, but not conducive to growth. The birth rate is also expected to decline somewhat from 2.66 in 2020, down to around 2.12 children born to the average Mongolian woman by the year 2050. If these predictions prove true, the annual growth rate will go from around 1.52% in 2020 to 0.61% by 2050 and the population of Mongolia will respectively be roughly 3,209,404 in 2020, 3,560,959 in 2030, 3,827,004 in 2040 and 4,075,382 in 2050.

Components of Population Change

One birth every 7 minutes
One death every 25 minutes
One net migrant every 720 minutes
Net gain of one person every 10 minutes

Mongolia Population in 2018Source: By Peter1170 [CC BY-SA 4.0 (https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/4.0)], from Wikimedia Commons

Mongolia Population Pyramid 2020

Mongolia Population by Age

There are 2,102,777 adults in Mongolia.

Census Years

Year Date
20202020
201017 November 2010
200011 January 2000
19895 January 1989

Mongolia's population is currently growing at a rate of 1.5% a year. The country's demographics resemble other developing countries with declining fertility rates with increasing lifespans. It's estimated the population will reach 3.5 million by 2030.

Official NameMongolia
Languages SpokenMongolian
Is LandlockedYes
Latitude/Longitude46.00, 105.00
Currencies UsedMongolia Tughrik
DemonymMongolian
BordersChina
Russia
Name Population Location
Ulan Bator844,818Map
Erdenet79,647Map
Darhan74,300Map
Khovd30,500Map
OElgii28,400Map
Ulaangom28,085Map
Hovd27,924Map
Murun-kuren27,690Map
Bayanhongor26,252Map
Arvayheer25,622Map
Suhbaatar24,235Map
Bayanhongor23,234Map
Saynshand19,891Map
Dzuunharaa18,830Map
Zuunmod17,630Map
Bulgan17,348Map
Uliastay16,240Map
Baruun-Urt15,805Map
Altai15,800Map
Mandalgovi15,430Map

Mongolia Population Clock

The population of Mongolia (as of 4/2/2020)?3,265,563
Last UN Estimate (July 1, 2020)3,278,290
Births Per Day202
Deaths Per Day57
Net Migrations Per Day-2
Net Change Per Day143
Population Change Since January 1st13,299

Mongolia Population Estimator

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Estimate as of April 2nd 2020 is: 3,265,337

Year Population % Male % Female Density (km²) Population Rank Growth Rate
20203,278,29049.26%50.74%2.101361.65%
20193,225,16749.30%50.70%2.061361.73%
20183,170,21649.33%50.67%2.031361.81%
20173,113,78649.36%50.64%1.991371.88%
20163,056,36449.40%50.60%1.951371.93%
20152,998,43949.43%50.57%1.921371.97%
20102,719,89649.60%50.40%1.741411.49%
20052,526,42449.75%50.25%1.621391.05%
20002,397,41849.87%50.13%1.531380.85%
19952,298,02049.54%50.46%1.471381.02%
19902,184,14549.37%50.63%1.401362.59%
19851,921,88149.33%50.67%1.231392.61%
19801,689,62249.31%50.69%1.081392.69%
19751,479,65149.29%50.71%0.951392.96%
19701,278,82549.25%50.75%0.821402.93%
19651,107,12449.22%50.78%0.711412.99%
1960955,50549.17%50.83%0.611402.25%
1955855,10349.22%50.78%0.551401.85%
1950780,19949.15%50.85%0.501400.00%
Year Population % Male % Female Density (km²) Population Rank Growth Rate
20203,278,29049.26%50.74%2.101360.00%
20253,513,90749.09%50.91%2.251351.40%
20303,716,21048.93%51.07%2.381341.13%
20353,904,13348.77%51.23%2.501310.99%
20404,089,20348.65%51.35%2.611310.93%
20454,272,63148.57%51.43%2.731320.88%
20504,448,93048.52%51.48%2.841320.81%
20554,606,03148.51%51.49%2.941320.70%
20604,737,64448.51%51.48%3.031310.57%
20654,847,74548.54%51.46%3.101300.46%
20704,946,67548.59%51.41%3.161300.40%
20755,041,01948.67%51.33%3.221300.38%
20805,133,13948.76%51.24%3.281310.36%
20855,220,42548.85%51.15%3.341300.34%
20905,295,94948.92%51.09%3.391290.29%
20955,352,83948.97%51.03%3.421280.21%
  1. Mongolian National Statistical Office
  2. World Population Prospects (2019 Revision) - United Nations population estimates and projections.

    Total population: Estimated to be consistent with censuses from 1956 through 2010, with official estimate for 2016, and with estimates of the subsequent trends in fertility, mortality and international migration. Recent official estimates include Mongolian citizens living abroad from more than 6 months.

  3. GeoNames Gazetteer