Here are some of the key facts about global water scarcity:
- Nearly two-thirds of the world's population experience acute water scarcity for at least a month.
- About a half of the world's population could be living in areas with water shortage by as soonest as 2025
- 700 million people are likely to be displaced by intense water shortage stress by 2030
- Approximately 1 in 4 children around the world will be living in regions with severe scarcity of water by 2040
Countries With Water Scarcity
Climate change, population growth and government policies are the main culprits of water scarcity.
While Egypt has access to the river Nile which supplies around 93% of water resources in the country, the water supply is threatened by establishing Grand Ethiopian Renaissance Dam on the upper side of the river Nile. The dam is intended to be a hydroelectric plant to supply 6000 megawatts of electricity to two-thirds of the population without electricity in the country.
Yet, it could have catastrophic impacts. As the reservoirs fill up, water flowing downstream will reduce. If it takes five years to fill the dam, Egypt will lose around 36% of its water supply and half of its agricultural land.
Iraq is considered a region with high water scarcity stress, in contrast to when the Iraqi city of Basra was nicknamed the Venice of the East. The country gets about 98% of its surface water from the Tigris and Euphrates rivers, originating from Turkey.
Trouble began in the 1970s when Turkey initiated South- Eastern Anatolia project to construct 19 power plants. For the same, Iraq didn't receive fair compensation.
As if that's not enough, Iran's Daryan dam was inaugurated in 2018. Diyala River -- a tributary was Iraq's Tigris River, was cut off. It's predicted that by 2040, the rivers Tigris and Euphrates within the borders of Iraq will be completely dry. The United States
The world Resource Institute has it that the U.S. has low to medium water scarcity. However, there're some notable differences within the borders of the country. The western region-including California, has been facing a decrease in water supply due to exceptional drought, an event that has been exacerbated by climate.
Furthermore, the federal government imposed a policy that cut the water supply from the Klamath River on the Oregon – California border to protect native fish species. About 85% of farmland in this region relies on water from this river for irrigation, so the policy has posed a major challenge to farmers.
India is a water-stressed country that represents 18% of the world's population but owns only 4% of the worlds freshwater. The situation might soon aggravate now that Chine launched a megaproject in 2021 to build a powerful hydroelectric plant upstream of the river Brahmaputra.
The river flows from Tibet to India, supplying about 30% of India's water. The project could reduce Brahmaputra's water supply by up to 60%. So we can always imagine how much that will accelerate water scarcity in India.