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# of Parties

5

10

15

20

25

30

35

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Effective Number of Parties by Country 2024

First introduced by sociologist Maurice Duverger, the effective number of parties (ENP) metric is more than just a way to keep track of the total number of political parties active in a country at a given time. Keeping an eye on it and analyzing the ways it might change over time is a fairly reliable way to assess how fragmented or cohesive a country’s political situation may be.

Assessing the differences between active political parties at a given time, as well as the relative strength of each, can also shed valuable light on how politically diverse a country’s people may be. Here’s a closer look at ENP stats for various countries around the world, as well as a few factors that may influence this metric.

Effective Number of Parties by Country

As of 2023, the following world countries have the highest effective number of parties stats.

In addition to indicating the overall degree of political fragmentation within a country, ENP can also be used to predict the potential for coalition governments.

Potential Factors Influencing Effective Number of Parties

A variety of different complex factors can play into why a country’s ENP metric is as high or low as it is at a given time. Here are some examples. The effective number of parties in a country can often depend on what the political culture is like there. In some countries, numerous parties are the norm and have been for a long time, making the emergence of new parties more likely. But in countries like the United States with a long-standing two-party system in place, the emergence of strong new parties is rare.

Countries with greater levels of diversity as far as ethnic background, native language, and so forth may eventually give rise to multiple active parties to represent different social subsections. This could naturally leWad to a higher ENP over time as some of those parties gain strength. Forces like civil unrest or powerful social movements can eventually lead to the emergence of new political parties to represent associated interests. Should any of those parties gain power, the country’s ENP will eventually go up.

Download Table Data

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Country
# of Parties
Year
Lebanon33.571976
Vanuatu11.362016
Brazil9.912022
Belgium9.702019
Bosnia and Herzegovina92022
Colombia8.742022
Netherlands8.542021
Malaysia7.722022
Indonesia7.472019
Papua New Guinea7.382016
Denmark7.242022
Guatemala6.732019
Israel6.512022
Switzerland6.472019
Finland6.362019
Iceland6.292021
Peru6.202021
Latvia6.142022
Ireland5.982020
Liberia5.812017
Morocco5.682021
Tanzania5.642019
Norway5.562021
Germany5.512021
Bulgaria5.492022
Russia5.212000
Malawi5.192019
Sweden5.182022
Kenya5.112016
Lithuania4.842020
Kyrgyzstan4.822016
Cyprus4.812021
Gambia4.802022
Nepal4.752022
Costa Rica4.732018
Spain4.682019
Benin4.662016
San Marino4.632019
Luxembourg4.562018
Slovakia4.372020
Comoros4.362016
Iraq4.352010
Romania4.302020
Estonia4.192019
Central African Republic4.182003
Cuba4.171954
Chile4.132021
Burkina Faso4.112020
Sudan4.071990
Austria3.942019
Lesotho3.932022
Niger3.852020
France3.722022
Montenegro3.712020
Pakistan3.632016
Serbia3.582022
Maldives3.542016
Suriname3.532020
Greenland3.522021
Philippines3.442016
Czech Republic3.342021
Uruguay3.312019
North Macedonia3.252020
Croatia3.192020
Honduras3.162021
Australia3.152022
Panama3.072019
Guinea Bissau3.052019
Slovenia3.042022
Mali32016
El Salvador2.992021
Andorra2.992019
Liechtenstein2.932021
Paraguay2.862018
Poland2.762019
Canada2.762021
Dominican Republic2.752020
Greece2.712019
Japan2.692021
Laos2.671959
Portugal2.662022
Ukraine2.642019
Fiji2.632022
Senegal2.612022
New Zealand2.612016
Thailand2.572015
South Africa2.572019
Argentina2.572021
Somalia2.511973
Saint Kitts and Nevis2.502022
Timor Leste2.462018
Taiwan2.452020
Sierra Leone2.452018
Sao Tome and Principe2.412022
Italy2.402022
United Kingdom2.392019
Georgia2.372020
Zambia2.352021
Uganda2.342021
Palestine2.322006
Mauritania2.292019
Bolivia2.282020
Turkey2.272018
Solomon Islands2.252016
Mexico2.212021
Cape Verde2.202021
Albania2.182021
India2.172019
Namibia2.162019
Sri Lanka2.102020
South Korea2.092020
Guyana2.062020
Myanmar2.051964
Moldova2.032021
Nigeria2.012016
Ghana2.012020
United States22020
Trinidad and Tobago1.992020
Malta1.972022
Togo1.952013
Kiribati1.952016
Botswana1.942019
Armenia1.932021
Grenada1.922022
Saint Vincent and the Grenadines1.922020
Bhutan1.862018
Hungary1.842022
Ecuador1.752016
Seychelles1.692020
Dominica1.692016
Saint Lucia1.652021
Mauritius1.612016
Bangladesh1.602016
Nicaragua1.592016
Mozambique1.572017
Burundi1.572016
Jamaica1.532020
Madagascar1.462011
Bahamas1.422021
Bermuda1.382020
Belize1.372020
Mongolia1.342016
Monaco1.292018
Antigua and Barbuda1.272018
Venezuela1.172020
Barbados12022
Palau12016
showing: 147 rows

What country has the highest number of effective parties?

Brazil, with an average of 9.91 parties as of 2022 currently has the highest number of effective parties. Belgium, with 9.70, and Bosnia and Herzegovina also have high effective party counts.

Frequently Asked Questions

Sources