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Electronic Voting by Country 2024

Electronic voting, also known as e-voting, is a collective term for any technology that assists in casting or counting ballots. These include direct recording electronic (DRE) voting machines, which may or may not use a voter-verified paper audit trail (VVPAT) to verify votes. Additional electronic voting technologies include an electronic ballot printer (EBP), internet voting system (IVS), optical character recognition (OCR) and vote-by-text-message (SMS) systems.

Countries may use electronic voting, for national elections, sub-national elections, or other types of elections like non-binding referendums and trade union elections. In addition to casting and counting ballots, the election may also be controlled electronically. Furthermore, only certain types of voters may be allowed to vote electronically.

The International Institute for Democracy and Electoral Assistance (IDEA) has published the following information on countries that allow some degree of electronic voting as of July 2023:

Country | Election Types | Technology | Control Status | Voter Types

India - National and sub-national elections | DRE w VVPAT | Controlled | All voters

United States - National and sub-national elections | DRE, OCR, OMR | Controlled | Varies by state, but extensive options

Pakistan - National elections | IVS | Controlled | Voters from abroad

Brazil - National elections | DRE w VVPAT | Controlled | All voters

Bangladesh - National elections | DRE w VVPAT | Controlled | Certain constituencies

Mexico - Sub-national elections | DRE w VVPAT, IVS | Both | Certain constituencies

Philippines - National and sub-national elections | OCR or OMR | Controlled | All voters

France - National and other elections | DRE w VVPAT, IVS | Both | Voters from abroad or in certain constituencies

Argentina - National and sub-national elections | EBP | Controlled | Certain constituencies

Iraq - National elections | OCR or OMR | Controlled | All voters

Canada - Sub-national elections | IVS, OCR or OMR | Both | Certain constituencies

Peru - National and sub-national elections | DRE w VVPAT | Controlled | Certain constituencies

Venezuela - National elections | DRE w VVPAT | Controlled | All voters

Australia - Sub-national elections | IVS | Uncontrolled | Certain constituencies

Ecuador - National and sub-national elections | EBP, IVS | Both | Certain constituencies

Belgium - National and sub-national elections | EBP | Controlled | Certain constituencies

Dominican Republic - National elections | OCR or OMR | Controlled | All voters

United Arab Emirates - National elections | IVS | Controlled | All voters

Paraguay - Sub-national elections | DRE w VVPAT | Controlled | All voters

Kyrgyzstan - National elections | OCR or OMR | Controlled | All voters

Bulgaria - National and sub-national elections | DRE w VVPAT | Controlled | All voters

New Zealand - National elections | IVS | Uncontrolled | Voters from abroad

Oman - National elections | DRE w VVPAT, IVS | Controlled | All voters

Panama - National, sub-national, and other elections DRE w VVPAT, IVS Both Certain constituencies

Mongolia - National and sub-national elections | OCR or OMR, SMS | Both | All voters

Albania - National elections | DRE w VVPAT | Controlled | Certain constituencies

Armenia - National elections | IVS | Uncontrolled | Voters from abroad and military voters

Namibia - National elections | DRE w VVPAT | Controlled | All voters

Estonia - National and sub-national elections | IVS | Uncontrolled | All voters

Fiji - Other (trade unions and student body elections) | DRE w VVPAT, EBP | Controlled | Registered members of Trade Union or student body electoral roll

Bhutan - National and sub-national elections | DRE w VVPAT | Controlled | All voters

  • Data current as of July 2023, but election rules can change at any time
  • EMB = Electoral Management Body, a general term used to describe the organizations in charge of conducting, and in many countries organizing, elections
  • Examples of "other" elections include non-binding referendums and the election of trade union leaders
  • DRE w VVPAT = Direct recording electronic voting machines with voter-verified paper audit trail (VVPAT)
  • DRE = Direct recording electronic voting machines with or without voter-verified paper audit trail (VVPAT)
  • EBP = Electronic Ballot Printer
  • IVS = Internet Voting Systems
  • OCR = Optical Character Recognition
  • OMR = Optical Mark Recognition
  • SMS = Vote-by-Text-Message systems

Download Table Data

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Country
In Use
Elections which use EVoting
Type of Technology Used
Voting Environment Type
Available to Whom?
Status of E-Voting where Not in Use
IndiaNational and sub-national electionsDRE w VVPATControlledAll voters
United StatesYes - National and sub-national electionsDRE, OCR, OMRControlledVaries by state, but extensive options
PakistanNational electionsIVSControlledVoters from abroad
BrazilNational electionsDRE w VVPATControlledAll voters
BangladeshNational electionsDRE w VVPATControlledCertain constituencies
MexicoSub-national electionsDRE w VVPAT, IVSBothCertain constituencies
PhilippinesNational and sub-national electionsOCR or OMRControlledAll voters
FranceNational and other electionsDRE w VVPAT, IVSBothVoters from abroad or in certain constituencies
IraqNational electionsOCR or OMRControlledAll voters
ArgentinaNational and sub-national electionsEBPControlledCertain constituencies
CanadaSub-national electionsIVS, OCR or OMRBothCertain constituencies
PeruNational and sub-national electionsDRE w VVPATControlledCertain constituencies
VenezuelaNational electionsDRE w VVPATControlledAll voters
AustraliaSub-national electionsIVSUncontrolledCertain constituencies
EcuadorNational and sub-national electionsEBP, IVSBothCertain constituencies
BelgiumNational and sub-national electionsEBPControlledCertain constituencies
Dominican RepublicNational electionsOCR or OMRControlledAll voters
United Arab EmiratesNational electionsIVSControlledAll voters
ParaguaySub-national electionsDRE w VVPATControlledAll voters
KyrgyzstanNational electionsOCR or OMRControlledAll voters
BulgariaNational and sub-national electionsDRE w VVPATControlledAll voters
New ZealandNational electionsIVSUncontrolledVoters from abroad
OmanNational electionsDRE w VVPAT, IVSControlledAll voters
PanamaNational, sub-national, and other electionsDRE w VVPAT, IVSBothCertain constituencies
MongoliaNational and sub-national electionsOCR or OMR, SMSBothAll voters
AlbaniaNational electionsDRE w VVPATControlledCertain constituencies
ArmeniaNational electionsIVSUncontrolledVoters from abroad and military voters
NamibiaNational electionsDRE w VVPATControlledAll voters
EstoniaNational and sub-national electionsIVSUncontrolledAll voters
FijiOther (trade unions and student body elections)DRE w VVPAT, EBPControlledRegistered members of Trade Union or student body electoral rollUsed in the Trade Union and student body elections.
BhutanNational and sub-national electionsDRE w VVPATControlledAll voters
IndonesiaNoneFeasibility studies finished or in-progress
NigeriaNoneFeasibility studies finished or in-progress
EthiopiaNoneNever used
JapanNoneUsed but abandoned
EgyptNoneNever used
TurkeyNoneFeasibility studies finished or in-progress
GermanyNoneUsed but abandoned
ThailandNoneNever used
United KingdomNoneFeasibility studies finished or in-progress
South AfricaNoneFeasibility studies finished or in-progress
ItalyNoneFeasibility studies finished or in-progress
KenyaNoneNever used
MyanmarNoneNever used
ColombiaNoneFeasibility studies finished or in-progress
UgandaNoneNever used
SudanNoneNever used
SpainNoneFeasibility studies finished or in-progress
AlgeriaNoneFeasibility studies finished or in-progress
AfghanistanNoneNever used
PolandNoneNever used
MoroccoNoneNever used
UkraineNoneFeasibility studies finished or in-progress
AngolaNoneNever used
UzbekistanNoneNever used
YemenNoneNever used
MozambiqueNoneNever used
GhanaNoneNever used
MalaysiaNoneNever used
NepalNoneUsed but abandoned
MadagascarNoneNever used
CameroonNoneNever used
NigerNoneNever used
MaliNoneNever used
TaiwanNoneNever used
Burkina FasoNoneNever used
Sri LankaNoneFeasibility studies finished or in-progress
MalawiNoneNever used
ZambiaNoneNever used
KazakhstanNoneUsed but abandoned
ChileNoneNever used
RomaniaNoneUsed but abandoned
ChadNoneNever used
GuatemalaNoneNever used
SenegalNoneNever used
NetherlandsNoneUsed but abandoned
CambodiaNoneNever used
ZimbabweNoneNever used
GuineaNoneNever used
RwandaNoneNever used
BeninNoneNever used
BurundiNoneNever used
BoliviaNoneFeasibility studies finished or in-progress
TunisiaNoneNever used
HaitiNoneFeasibility studies finished or in-progress
JordanNoneNever used
South SudanNoneNever used
CubaNoneNever used
HondurasNoneFeasibility studies finished or in-progress
SwedenNoneFeasibility studies finished or in-progress
Papua New GuineaNoneNever used
Czech RepublicNoneNever used
AzerbaijanNoneFeasibility studies finished or in-progress
TajikistanNoneNever used
GreeceNoneNever used
PortugalNoneFeasibility studies finished or in-progress
HungaryNoneNever used
BelarusNoneNever used
IsraelNoneNever used
TogoNoneNever used
Sierra LeoneNoneFeasibility studies finished or in-progress
AustriaNoneFeasibility studies finished or in-progress
SwitzerlandNoneUsed but abandoned
Hong KongNoneUnofficial civil referendums may use electronic/online voting
NicaraguaNoneNever used
SerbiaNoneNever used
LibyaNoneNever used
TurkmenistanNoneNever used
El SalvadorNoneNever used
SingaporeNoneNever used
DenmarkNoneFeasibility studies finished or in-progress
Central African RepublicNoneNever used
SlovakiaNoneNever used
FinlandNoneUsed but abandoned
LiberiaNoneNever used
NorwayNoneUsed but abandoned
Costa RicaNoneFeasibility studies finished or in-progress
LebanonNoneNever used
IrelandNoneFeasibility studies finished or in-progress
MauritaniaNoneNever used
KuwaitNoneFeasibility studies finished or in-progress
CroatiaNoneNever used
EritreaNoneNever used
GeorgiaNoneNever used
UruguayNoneFeasibility studies finished or in-progress
Bosnia and HerzegovinaNoneNever used
GambiaNoneNever used
JamaicaNoneNever used
BotswanaNoneNever used
LithuaniaNoneFeasibility studies finished or in-progress
GabonNoneNever used
LesothoNoneNever used
SloveniaNoneNever used
LatviaNoneNever used
Equatorial GuineaNoneNever used
Trinidad and TobagoNoneNever used
BahrainNoneFeasibility studies finished or in-progress
Timor LesteNoneNever used
MauritiusNoneNever used
CyprusNoneNever used
EswatiniNoneNever used
DjiboutiNoneNever used
ComorosNoneNever used
Solomon IslandsNoneNever used
LuxembourgNoneNever used
MontenegroNoneNever used
MaltaNoneNever used
MaldivesNoneNever used
BelizeNoneNever used
IcelandNoneFeasibility studies finished or in-progress
VanuatuNoneNever used
SamoaNoneNever used
KiribatiNoneNever used
TongaNoneNever used
SeychellesNoneNever used
AndorraNoneNever used
LiechtensteinNoneAllowed by law, but no feasibility studies or tests yet
San MarinoNoneNever used
PalauNoneNever used
Cook IslandsNoneNever used
NauruNoneNever used
TuvaluNoneNever used
NiueNoneNever used
showing: 163 rows

Which countries use electronic voting?

Many countries throughout the world are currently using electronic voting systems, including India, the United States, Pakistan, Brazil, Bangladesh, Mexico, Philippines, France, Argentina, Iraq, Canada, Peru, Venezuela, Australia, Ecuador, Belgium, Dominican Republic, United Arab Emirates, Paraguay, Kyrgyzstan, Bulgaria, New Zealand, Oman, Panama, Mongolia, Albania, Armenia, Namibia, Estonia, Fiji, Bhutan

Frequently Asked Questions

Sources