Ecological Footprint By Country 2021

The ecological footprint is a metric that measures human demand on natural capital or the quantity of nature it takes to support a given population or economy. The ecological footprint is the demand on and the supply of nature. Promoted by the Global Footprint Network, the ecological footprint can help individuals understand their consumption and impact on the planet; countries improve sustainability and well-being, and local leaders optimize investments for public projects.

The ecological footprint has a demand side and a supply side.

The demand side measures the ecological assets a population needs to produce the natural resources it consumes and to absorb its carbon emissions and other waste. These natural resources include livestock and fish products, timber, plant-based food, and fiber products.

The supply side of the ecological footprint, a given population’s biocapacity represents the productivity of its ecological assets. Biocapacity is the capacity of a given biologically productive area to generate a supply of renewable resources and to absorb its wastes.

The ecological footprint and biocapacity are expressed in global hectares. Global hectares are comparable and standardized with world average productivity.

If a given population’s ecological footprint exceeds its biocapacity, that population has an ecological deficit. This means that the population’s demand for natural resources exceeds its supply, which can lead to depletion and high emissions of carbon dioxide into the air. If a given population’s biocapacity exceeds its ecological footprint, it has an ecological reserve.

Having a footprint smaller than biocapacity is a necessary condition for the sustainability of humanity.

The world-average ecological footprint was 2.75 global hectares per person (22.6 billion total) and the average biocapacity was 1.63 global hectares. This means there is a global deficit of 1.1 global hectares per person.

Ecological footprints and biocapacities vary greatly between countries. A country’s footprint and biocapacity depend on several factors including its geography, population size, and environmental policies. Some of the most eco-friendly countries are Denmark, Luxembourg, and Switzerland.

Information provided on the countries in this article is based on data from 1961 to 2013 from the Global Footprint Network’s National Footprint Accounts published in 2016.

1. China

China has an ecological footprint of 3.71 hectares per capita and a biocapacity of 0.92 per capita. China’s total ecological deficit is -3,435.62, the largest in the world. As China’s economy continues to rapidly expand, people’s incomes are rising, and, as a result, so is their consumption. With the largest population of any country in the world at about 1.4 billion combined with inefficient resource use, China is depleting its resources quickly.

2. United States

The U.S. has an ecological deficit of -1,416.05. Its ecological footprint per capita is 8.04 hectares and its biocapacity per capita is 3.45 hectares. The average US ecological footprint is about 50% larger than the average person in most European countries. The U.S. has more suburban sprawl, less public transportation, and uses more energy and water per person than other comparable, developed countries. Additionally, California has the same ecological footprint as France.

3. India

India’s ecological footprint per capita is 1.19 and its biocapacity per capita is 0.43 hectares. India’s total ecological deficit is -878.05 hectares. India represents about 6% of the world’s ecological footprint. India, like China, has a population of over 1 billion people. While India’s ecological footprint is relatively low, its biocapacity is much lower, leading to its large deficit.

4. Japan

Japan’s ecological footprint is 4.65 hectares per capita and its biocapacity is 0.59 hectares per capita. Japan’s ecological deficit is -547.18 hectares, the fourth-highest in the world. A majority of Japan’s ecological footprint is made up of Japan’s carbon footprint. If everyone lived based on the Japanese standard of living, we would require the equivalent of 2.3 Earths to support the world population.

5. United Kingdom

The U.K. has the fifth-largest ecological deficit in the world of -483.83. The U.K.’s ecological footprint per capita is 4.20 hectares and its biocapacity per capita is 1.08 hectares. Between 2014 and 2016, the United Kingdom’s carbon footprint dropped 11.7% driving the country’s total ecological footprint down by 8.8%. Although the U.K.’s ecological deficit is the fifth-highest in the world, the country seems to be moving in the right direction.

Ecological Footprint By Country 2021

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Ecological Footprint By Country 2021

Country Ecological Footprint (per capita) Biocapacity (per capita) Biocapacity (per capita) Total Biocapaciy Deficit/Reserve 2021 Population
Luxembourg15.821.68-14.14-7.35634,814
Aruba11.880.57-11.31-1.13107,204
Qatar10.801.24-9.56-19.602,930,528
Australia9.3116.577.26167.3425,788,215
United States8.223.76-4.46-1416.05332,915,073
Canada8.1716.017.83272.8038,067,903
Kuwait8.130.55-7.58-24.644,328,550
Singapore7.970.05-7.92-41.985,896,686
United Kingdom7.930.56-7.37-483.8368,207,116
Trinidad And Tobago7.921.56-6.36-8.521,403,375
Montserrat7.781.36-6.42-0.034,977
Oman7.521.92-5.60-18.545,223,375
Bahrain7.490.58-6.91-9.121,748,296
Belgium7.441.19-6.25-69.1311,632,326
Sweden7.2510.623.3832.1410,160,169
Estonia6.8610.533.674.731,325,185
Bahamas6.849.552.711.00396,913
Latvia6.299.553.266.721,866,942
Israel6.220.35-5.87-44.858,789,774
Mongolia6.0815.669.5826.823,329,289
Austria6.063.07-3.00-25.389,043,070
Taiwan5.931.00-4.131.0023,855,010
Finland5.8713.447.5740.955,548,360
Lithuania5.835.67-0.17-0.522,689,862
Slovenia5.812.35-3.47-7.182,078,724
Switzerland5.791.30-4.48-35.848,715,494
Bermuda5.770.13-5.64-0.3462,090
South Korea5.690.68-5.01-245.4951,305,186
Russia5.696.791.10157.49145,912,025
Cayman Islands5.650.32-5.33-0.3266,497
Saudi Arabia5.610.50-5.12-144.8435,340,683
New Zealand5.6010.144.5420.254,860,643
Ireland5.573.73-1.83-8.384,982,907
Kazakhstan5.553.41-2.14-34.8218,994,962
Denmark5.514.78-0.73-4.095,813,298
Turkmenistan5.472.79-2.68-13.866,117,924
Antigua And Barbuda5.380.94-4.44-0.4098,731
Germany5.302.27-3.02-250.0683,900,473
Netherlands5.281.17-4.11-68.6817,173,099
Czech Republic5.192.46-2.73-29.1010,724,555
France5.143.11-2.04-130.5265,426,179
Belarus5.093.64-1.45-13.639,442,862
Japan5.020.72-4.30-547.18126,050,804
Norway4.988.183.1915.925,465,630
Saint Kitts And Nevis4.940.62-4.31-0.2253,544
United Arab Emirates4.941.32-3.62-22.829,991,089
Bhutan4.845.270.430.32779,898
French Polynesia4.731.37-3.36-0.91282,530
Italy4.611.08-3.53-215.0560,367,477
Barbados4.480.19-4.29-1.20287,711
Poland4.442.08-2.36-90.1837,797,005
Greece4.381.61-2.77-30.8010,370,744
Chile4.363.63-0.73-12.7519,212,361
Suriname4.2589.3385.0845.94591,800
Cyprus4.210.34-3.87-4.371,215,584
Paraguay4.1610.526.3642.557,219,638
Brunei4.062.87-1.19-0.49441,532
Slovakia4.062.71-1.35-7.365,460,721
Equatorial Guinea3.974.400.440.331,449,896
Croatia3.922.80-1.12-4.834,081,651
Portugal3.881.51-2.37-25.1210,167,925
Lebanon3.840.33-3.51-16.326,769,146
Botswana3.833.47-0.35-0.702,397,241
Montenegro3.783.24-0.54-0.33628,053
Malaysia3.712.41-1.30-38.0132,776,194
Libya3.690.70-3.00-18.486,958,532
Spain3.671.25-2.42-113.1646,745,216
Reunion3.650.18-3.47-2.98901,686
New Caledonia3.587.674.091.02288,218
Venezuela3.572.78-0.79-23.6728,704,954
Mauritius3.460.71-2.75-3.411,273,433
China3.380.94-2.44-3435.621,444,216,107
Turkey3.331.52-1.81-133.9485,042,738
Bulgaria3.322.86-0.46-3.356,896,663
South Africa3.311.15-2.16-113.1660,041,994
Guadeloupe3.230.45-2.77-1.27400,020
Argentina3.146.923.78155.3245,605,826
Bosnia And Herzegovina3.121.63-1.49-5.713,263,466
Saint Vincent And The Grenadines3.111.26-1.85-0.20111,263
Brazil3.119.085.971186.00213,993,437
Guyana3.0766.5863.5150.81790,326
Grenada2.981.96-1.01-0.10113,021
Bolivia2.9616.7313.77144.5911,832,940
Nauru2.940.19-2.76-0.0310,876
Hungary2.922.17-0.75-7.499,634,164
Uruguay2.9110.327.4125.193,485,151
Fiji2.902.37-0.52-0.46902,906
Mexico2.891.27-1.62-195.78130,262,216
British Virgin Islands2.862.05-0.81-0.0230,421
Costa Rica2.841.53-1.31-6.295,139,052
Ukraine2.842.27-0.58-26.4143,466,819
Panama2.792.940.150.574,381,579
Iran2.790.90-1.89-144.4385,028,759
Samoa2.771.93-0.85-0.16200,149
Romania2.712.32-0.39-8.4919,127,774
Tonga2.701.48-1.22-0.12106,760
Serbia2.701.25-1.44-13.758,697,550
Thailand2.661.24-1.42-94.8369,950,850
Dominica2.571.03-1.54-0.1172,167
Mauritania2.544.481.937.334,775,119
Cape Verde2.520.62-1.90-0.93561,898
Namibia2.486.884.409.942,587,344
Saint Lucia2.450.34-2.10-0.38184,400
French Guiana2.34111.35109.0126.16306,448
Tunisia2.340.93-1.40-15.2311,935,766
Uzbekistan2.320.92-1.40-39.9633,935,763
Azerbaijan2.310.85-1.46-13.5910,223,342
Peru2.283.971.6950.6833,359,418
Armenia2.230.89-1.35-4.012,968,127
Albania2.211.18-1.03-3.252,872,933
Djibouti2.190.77-1.42-1.221,002,187
Ecuador2.172.200.030.4617,888,475
Egypt2.150.56-1.59-128.34104,258,327
Algeria2.120.59-1.53-58.8744,616,624
Jordan2.100.21-1.89-13.2510,269,021
Martinique2.080.39-1.70-0.68374,745
Wallis And Futuna2.071.51-0.56-0.0111,094
El Salvador2.070.61-1.46-9.206,518,499
Gabon2.0226.3124.2939.592,278,825
Eswatini2.010.88-1.14-1.401,172,362
Ghana1.971.35-0.62-15.7331,732,129
Cuba1.950.76-1.19-13.4111,317,505
Kyrgyzstan1.911.30-0.61-3.346,628,356
Papua New Guinea1.913.922.0114.419,119,010
Jamaica1.890.43-1.46-4.042,973,463
Guatemala1.890.99-0.90-13.5718,249,860
Iraq1.880.29-1.59-52.1241,179,350
Colombia1.873.601.7282.0451,265,844
Moldova1.780.80-0.98-3.444,024,019
Honduras1.681.770.090.7110,062,991
Morocco1.680.71-0.96-31.2237,344,795
Lesotho1.660.78-0.87-1.782,159,079
Vietnam1.651.00-0.65-59.0298,168,833
Georgia1.581.17-0.41-1.793,979,765
Indonesia1.581.26-0.32-79.00276,361,783
Niger1.561.24-0.32-5.4925,130,817
Guinea Bissau1.533.031.492.472,015,494
Dominican Republic1.530.56-0.97-9.9710,953,703
Mali1.531.580.050.7420,855,735
Syria1.510.60-0.91-19.9218,275,702
Sao Tome And Principe1.490.87-0.61-0.12223,368
Chad1.462.030.577.1016,914,985
Myanmar1.431.840.4121.6554,806,012
Benin1.410.88-0.53-5.3312,451,040
Guinea1.412.090.687.7913,497,244
Nicaragua1.392.250.875.216,702,385
Zimbabwe1.370.62-0.75-10.2915,092,171
Sri Lanka1.320.44-0.88-18.5721,497,310
Tanzania1.321.08-0.24-11.4761,498,437
Solomon Islands1.294.363.081.69703,996
Republic Of The Congo1.2910.919.6341.975,657,013
Ivory Coast1.271.780.5110.1227,053,629
Central African Republic1.247.876.6229.994,919,981
Sierra Leone1.241.240.000.008,141,343
Somalia1.241.270.030.3116,359,504
Uganda1.240.59-0.66-23.9947,123,531
Laos1.221.620.402.667,379,358
Liberia1.212.571.355.665,180,203
Cambodia1.211.09-0.11-1.6316,946,438
Senegal1.211.05-0.16-2.2017,196,301
Burkina Faso1.210.98-0.22-3.6221,497,096
North Korea1.170.60-0.57-14.1125,887,041
Cameroon1.171.690.5211.2827,224,265
Nigeria1.160.70-0.47-79.35211,400,708
India1.160.45-0.71-878.051,393,409,038
Togo1.130.53-0.60-3.988,478,250
Philippines1.100.54-0.56-54.16111,046,913
Comoros1.030.32-0.70-0.50888,451
Gambia1.030.82-0.21-0.382,486,945
Yemen1.030.50-0.53-12.6430,490,640
Kenya1.030.51-0.52-22.4554,985,698
Ethiopia1.020.58-0.44-40.36117,876,227
Zambia0.992.231.2417.4618,920,651
Madagascar0.992.631.6436.5628,427,328
Nepal0.980.59-0.38-10.4429,674,920
Angola0.932.551.6135.5233,933,610
Tajikistan0.910.53-0.38-3.049,749,627
Rwanda0.870.54-0.32-3.6713,276,513
Mozambique0.872.061.1929.9932,163,047
Malawi0.810.66-0.15-2.3919,647,684
Burundi0.800.32-0.48-4.7312,255,433
Afghanistan0.790.50-0.30-8.9539,835,428
Pakistan0.790.35-0.44-78.83225,199,937
Bangladesh0.720.38-0.35-54.15166,303,498
Haiti0.610.27-0.34-3.4611,541,685
Eritrea0.491.300.885.393,601,467
Timor Leste0.481.781.301.441,343,873

Ecological Footprint By Country 2021