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CO₂ Emissions 2022

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CO₂ Emissions by Country 2024

Carbon dioxide (CO₂) is a greenhouse gas (GHG) generated predominantly through the burning of fossil fuels. In the atmosphere, greenhouse gases absorb and re-emit thermal radiation that would otherwise escape into space. In proper concentrations, greenhouse gases help ensure the Earth remains at a habitable temperature—however, modern consumption of fossil fuels has resulted in excessive emissions of CO₂ and other greenhouse gases. This, in turn, has created a "greenhouse effect" in which too much heat is captured, which disrupts Earth's carbon cycle and accelerates global warming.

Global warming and climate change have severe ecological impacts, including extreme weather events (floods, blizzards, storms), drought, sea-level rise, and disturbed water systems. CO2 emissions are a major part of each country's overall greenhouse gas emissions, and also contribute to a country's total pollution levels. Global CO₂ emissions are tracked by agencies such as the European Union's Emissions Database for Global Atmospheric Research (EDGAR), which compiles data from several sources to generate comprehensive annual reports on CO₂ emissions around the world.

Top 10 Countries with the Highest CO₂ Emissions in the World (Unit: million tons CO₂) - 2020 EDGAR:*

Country
CO₂ Emissions 2022
China12667.43
United States4853.78
India2693.03
Russia1909.04
Japan1082.65
Indonesia692.24
Iran686.42
Germany673.6
South Korea635.5
Saudi Arabia607.91

China has the highest overall level of CO₂ emissions, producing 11.680 gigatons (11.68 billion tons, or 11,680 million tons) of CO₂ emissions in 2020, followed by the United States with 4.535 gigatons and India with 2.412 gigatons. However, it is worth noting that these are also the world's three most populous countries, so their high rank among emitters of CO₂—which is released predominantly though transportation networks and electricity production—can be credited in no small part to their higher overall populations.

This notion is reinforced when one balances the rankings by dividing total consumption by the country's population, resulting in a list of the world's highest CO₂ emitters per capita (per person). This method results in a notably different top ten list:

Top 10 Countries with the Highest CO₂ Emissions Per Capita (Unit: million tons CO₂) - 2020 EDGAR:

Country
CO₂ Emissions per Capita 2022
Palau59
Qatar35.52
Kuwait24.9
United Arab Emirates21.75
Bahrain21.31
Trinidad and Tobago21.17
Brunei20.65
Gibraltar18.96
New Caledonia18.24
Oman17.09

Between 2010 and 2019, total global CO₂ emissions increased from 33.1 gigatons to 38 gigatons, a number that is projected to increase in the coming years. In the United States, energy use has increased for the past six+ years, due to factors including increased electricity consumption due to increased use of heating and cooling systems and a rising level of travel and tourism than in previous years. This increase comes after almost a decade of declining energy use.

In general, developed countries have higher CO₂ emissions due to their more developed infrastructures—particularly their electrical power grids and road/transportation networks--and higher standards of living. However, as seen in the per-capita chart above, developing or emerging countries and countries with quickly growing economies often see their emissions rise as well as their infrastructure expands to serve their growing population.

Highly developed countries are also the best-positioned to develop and deploy more efficient technologies such as solar power and other renewable energy systems. Developed and technologically advanced countries such as Denmark, Luxembourg, and Switzerland are among the most environmentally friendly, implementing green initiatives to reduce their carbon footprint, lower CO₂ emissions and GHG emissions, and improve their overall environmental friendliness and health.

In addition to national initiatives, there are several methods that individuals can use to reduce their carbon footprint. These include eating less red meat (meat production releases both CO₂ and methane, another greenhouse gas); choosing to walk, bike, carpool, or use public transportation instead of driving; updating outdated appliances with more energy-efficient models; and using reusable shopping bags, bottles, and other containers instead of disposable packaging.

  • CO₂ Total Emissions are expressed in million tons of CO₂ (MtCO₂)
  • CO₂ Per Capita Emissions are expressed in tons of CO₂ per capita (tCO₂/cap)
  • CO₂ GDP Emissions are expressed in tons of CO₂ per $1000USD (tCO₂/1k$)
  • EDGAR totals combine certain countries and territories. France includes Monaco, Israel includes Palestine, Italy includes San Marino and Vatican City/Holy See, Sudan includes South Sudan, Spain includes Andorra, Switzerland includes Liechtenstein.
  • Data estimates exclude countries with minimal consumption. As such, the listed global total may appear to be higher than the sum of the displayed countries.

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Country
CO₂ Emissions 2022
CO₂ Emissions per Capita 2022
CO₂ Emissions per GDP 2022
% of World CO₂ Emissions 2022
CO₂ Emissions 2021
CO₂ Emissions per Capita 2021
CO₂ Emissions per GDP 2021
China12667.438.850.4932.88%12717.668.90.51
United States4853.7814.440.2312.6%4768.8714.290.23
India2693.031.910.276.99%2528.131.810.27
Russia1909.0413.310.474.96%1932.713.460.47
Japan1082.658.610.212.81%1075.668.530.21
Indonesia692.242.50.21.8%611.822.230.19
Iran686.428.080.511.78%677.828.040.51
Germany673.68.160.151.75%679.278.220.15
South Korea635.512.260.271.65%642.912.440.28
Saudi Arabia607.9116.980.331.58%590.5816.750.35
Canada582.0715.220.311.51%561.9914.820.3
Mexico487.773.560.21.27%441.833.260.18
Turkey481.255.660.171.25%466.795.520.17
Brazil466.772.150.141.21%503.542.340.16
South Africa404.976.750.51.05%418.977.060.53
Australia393.1615.120.31.02%388.0715.10.3
United Kingdom340.6150.110.88%339.065.010.11
Vietnam327.913.270.85%337.693.4
Italy322.955.480.130.84%320.765.430.13
Poland321.958.530.230.84%327.238.650.25
France315.34.760.10.82%324.774.920.11
Thailand282.454.060.230.73%276.293.980.23
Malaysia277.538.230.290.72%260.597.830.29
Taiwan275.5711.520.170.72%288.6212.090.2
Egypt265.962.50.190.69%249.642.380.19
Spain254.365.480.130.66%231.444.980.13
Kazakhstan245.8912.850.480.64%235.2212.410.47
United Arab Emirates218.821.750.310.57%214.4521.580.33
Pakistan199.330.920.160.52%216.061.020.18
Iraq193.844.430.470.5%179.934.220.47
Argentina184.043.970.180.48%181.453.950.18
Algeria177.083.970.350.46%178.84.070.37
Philippines155.381.380.160.4%146.141.310.16
Netherlands134.667.790.130.35%144.628.390.15
Ukraine132.543.070.350.34%180.514.160.34
Uzbekistan132.433.890.460.34%127.713.80.47
Nigeria122.750.570.110.32%123.180.580.12
Kuwait110.1224.90.520.29%102.8923.590.53
Bangladesh109.080.630.10.28%105.320.610.11
Qatar102.6235.520.390.27%106.5537.520.43
Czech Republic101.549.550.230.26%100.299.430.23
Venezuela96.922.860.590.25%88.242.630.58
Chile92.864.960.180.24%98.015.270.2
Oman91.6517.090.570.24%88.9616.880.57
Belgium90.417.720.150.23%97.238.330.16
Colombia88.471.740.110.23%84.321.670.11
Romania77.294.030.120.2%80.134.150.14
Morocco72.641.920.240.19%75.832.020.25
Turkmenistan69.8811.270.690.18%68.6311.220.7
Libya62.749.20.470.16%62.979.330.46
Israel61.774.240.140.16%59.524.160.14
Peru61.611.810.140.16%55.711.650.13
Austria61.176.940.120.16%65.557.450.14
Belarus57.416.120.330.15%59.646.350.32
Serbia56.876.130.330.15%57.046.130.34
Greece56.785.140.170.15%54.174.890.17
North Korea54.42.090.440.14%54.832.110.45
Singapore53.448.850.090.14%55.079.190.09
Bulgaria50.17.320.290.13%45.86.640.27
Hungary47.294.950.140.12%51.465.370.16
Ecuador46.112.590.240.12%42.972.450.23
Norway42.287.620.110.11%44.248.040.12
Portugal41.284.070.110.11%39.543.880.11
Bahrain37.9621.310.50.1%37.8221.690.52
Sweden37.853.690.070.1%38.033.730.07
Ireland37.797.610.070.1%36.177.340.07
Myanmar37.390.670.170.1%37.120.670.17
Finland37.326.640.140.1%39.056.980.14
Azerbaijan37.133.620.240.1%37.193.650.25
Switzerland36.114.110.060.09%36.584.190.06
Tunisia35.922.960.270.09%35.152.920.28
Slovakia35.236.460.20.09%36.266.650.2
Hong Kong32.444.240.080.08%34.414.530.08
New Zealand32.376.580.140.08%34.547.090.15
Trinidad and Tobago29.2221.170.810.08%29.2621.210.83
Denmark29.164.990.080.08%30.575.250.09
Syria28.241.381.220.07%27.171.391.17
Cuba24.772.150.090.06%24.162.10.09
Sudan24.520.40.150.06%24.060.410.14
Ghana24.450.760.130.06%24.070.770.13
Lebanon23.774.050.330.06%22.753.820.31
Jordan23.582.270.220.06%22.992.230.22
Dominican Republic23.462.070.110.06%23.182.070.11
Mongolia22.16.710.540.06%22.166.820.57
Bolivia21.961.850.220.06%21.871.870.22
Bosnia and Herzegovina21.836.260.40.06%21.796.240.42
Kenya21.530.380.080.06%20.930.380.08
Ethiopia21.110.180.070.05%20.550.180.07
Angola20.190.580.10.05%21.560.640.11
Laos20.132.740.340.05%20.212.780.35
Guatemala20.091.080.130.05%20.081.10.13
Sri Lanka18.540.870.070.05%21.1710.07
Cambodia17.621.030.230.05%17.521.030.24
Croatia17.224.230.130.04%17.024.160.14
Tanzania16.980.250.10.04%16.540.260.1
Nepal15.850.510.130.04%15.740.510.14
Ivory Coast14.490.530.090.04%14.210.530.1
Slovenia13.956.70.160.04%14.286.860.17
Lithuania13.264.690.120.03%14.064.950.13
Puerto Rico12.623.470.110.03%12.863.530.12
Yemen12.260.390.10.03%12.290.40.1
Senegal12.070.670.20.03%11.680.660.2
Georgia12.013.10.190.03%11.933.070.21
Panama11.382.580.080.03%10.872.50.08
Estonia10.858.390.210.03%11.648.970.23
Honduras10.611.060.180.03%10.041.020.18
Tajikistan10.551.070.260.03%10.411.080.27
Kyrgyzstan10.31.60.290.03%10.161.590.31
Zimbabwe10.220.550.290.03%9.640.530.28
Cameroon10.080.370.10.03%10.680.40.11
Mozambique10.030.290.240.03%8.980.270.23
Paraguay9.931.370.110.03%9.931.390.11
Benin9.620.750.210.02%9.280.750.21
Brunei9.3820.650.360.02%9.8121.850.37
Zambia9.270.470.140.02%8.870.460.14
Moldova8.652.170.260.02%9.212.30.26
Costa Rica8.611.680.080.02%8.141.60.07
Uruguay8.542.430.10.02%8.532.430.11
North Macedonia8.343.990.240.02%8.343.990.24
Botswana8.213.290.20.02%6.742.740.17
El Salvador7.971.220.130.02%7.551.160.13
Luxembourg7.5912.260.10.02%8.6314.120.12
Uganda7.540.150.070.02%7.370.150.07
Cyprus7.466.10.190.02%7.446.110.2
Mali6.730.310.140.02%6.440.310.14
Latvia6.713.610.110.02%7.243.860.12
Armenia6.332.150.140.02%6.932.360.17
Jamaica6.082.080.210.02%6.092.090.22
Burkina Faso5.820.260.120.02%5.60.260.12
Nicaragua5.730.880.140.01%5.430.840.14
Afghanistan5.680.140.090.01%5.640.140.09
Malawi5.630.260.190.01%5.210.250.18
Gabon5.522.460.170.01%5.62.550.17
New Caledonia5.3618.240.640.01%5.3218.290.69
Equatorial Guinea5.053.370.20.01%5.583.840.23
Papua New Guinea4.720.520.120.01%4.610.520.13
Mauritania4.610.920.180.01%4.410.90.18
Albania4.491.520.10.01%4.361.480.11
Namibia4.291.530.180.01%3.921.430.17
Mauritius4.283.350.150.01%4.043.160.15
Guinea3.80.260.10.01%3.660.260.1
Guyana3.84.760.140.01%3.744.710.21
Iceland3.5610.230.170.01%3.088.90.16
DR Congo3.550.040.030.01%3.60.040.03
Haiti3.440.30.110.01%3.310.290.1
Suriname3.295.60.360.01%3.285.630.36
Madagascar3.190.110.070.01%3.060.110.07
Reunion2.743.010.01%2.662.94
Niger2.630.10.080.01%2.570.10.09
Togo2.440.280.120.01%2.370.280.13
Macau2.253.340.070.01%2.213.340.05
Maldives2.184.620.20.01%2.134.580.22
Chad2.110.120.080.01%2.120.130.09
Curacao2.0512.410.570.01%1.9812.050.62
Malta1.723.930.070%1.673.840.07
Bhutan1.712.010.210%1.72.010.2
Fiji1.691.810.150%1.661.780.17
Rwanda1.630.120.050%1.590.120.05
Liberia1.620.30.210%1.560.30.21
Bahamas1.453.490.10%1.393.390.11
Palau1.36596.230%1.3360.45.35
Eswatini1.350.910.120%1.190.810.11
Sierra Leone1.10.130.080%1.060.130.08
Seychelles1.111.290.370%1.0811.080.39
Cape Verde1.021.740.220%0.971.690.25
French Polynesia0.963.250.170%0.933.190.19
Somalia0.940.060.050%0.920.060.05
Burundi0.920.070.10%0.90.070.1
Guadeloupe0.92.020%0.881.96
Martinique0.92.340%0.872.25
Eritrea0.80.140.050%0.790.140.05
Lesotho0.780.330.150%0.710.30.14
Djibouti0.760.740.140%0.750.740.14
Barbados0.672.340.160%0.652.260.17
Gibraltar0.6618.960.230%0.6418.30.22
Gambia0.610.250.110%0.580.250.11
Timor Leste0.570.40.10%0.550.390.08
Greenland0.478.170%0.447.71
Aruba0.464.250.090%0.444.090.11
Samoa0.361.750.310%0.351.720.29
Guinea Bissau0.350.170.090%0.330.160.09
French Guiana0.351.110%0.351.14
Comoros0.340.380.130%0.330.380.13
Solomon Islands0.320.470.20%0.310.470.18
Bermuda0.325.290.060%0.315.090.06
Cayman Islands0.314.730.060%0.34.550.06
Central African Republic0.280.050.060%0.290.060.06
Antigua and Barbuda0.282.590.140%0.272.520.14
Belize0.270.650.070%0.250.630.07
Saint Lucia0.251.390.090%0.251.350.1
Western Sahara0.240.390.290%0.240.390.33
Vanuatu0.220.710.240%0.210.710.24
Tonga0.171.480.260%0.161.460.25
Sao Tome and Principe0.160.70.170%0.170.760.19
Grenada0.121.10.070%0.121.080.07
Cook Islands0.116.340%0.116.2
Saint Kitts and Nevis0.11.760.070%0.11.690.08
Turks and Caicos Islands0.092.330.10%0.092.30.1
Saint Vincent and the Grenadines0.080.750.050%0.080.720.06
Kiribati0.070.590.280%0.070.580.28
Dominica0.070.920.080%0.070.870.08
British Virgin Islands0.061.960.050%0.061.890.06
Saint Pierre and Miquelon0.045.30%0.045.38
Anguilla0.021.520.090%0.021.470.1
Falkland Islands0.027.260%0.027.25
showing: 205 rows

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Country
CO₂ Emissions 2020
CO₂ Emissions per Capita 2020
CO₂ Emissions per GDP 2020
Afghanistan5.470.140.07
Albania4.301.460.11
Algeria167.633.870.36
Angola20.720.630.10
Anguilla0.021.490.11
Antigua and Barbuda0.282.630.16
Argentina164.033.600.18
Armenia6.702.280.18
Aruba0.454.260.13
Australia397.3715.650.32
Austria62.637.130.14
Azerbaijan35.153.480.25
Bahamas1.443.540.14
Bahrain36.8321.690.52
Bangladesh99.780.590.11
Barbados0.672.310.17
Belarus58.096.170.32
Belgium92.377.950.16
Belize0.220.550.07
Benin8.570.710.21
Bermuda0.325.220.07
Bhutan1.541.850.19
Bolivia18.461.600.20
Bosnia and Herzegovina22.536.440.47
Botswana6.102.520.18
Brazil447.702.090.15
British Virgin Islands0.061.980.06
Brunei9.6121.620.35
Bulgaria39.365.670.25
Burkina Faso5.140.250.11
Burundi0.830.070.10
Cambodia16.600.990.24
Cameroon10.330.400.11
Canada544.9714.490.31
Cape Verde0.891.580.25
Cayman Islands0.314.790.07
Central African Republic0.280.060.06
Chad1.980.120.08
Chile87.214.720.20
China12,037.328.450.52
Colombia81.271.620.12
Comoros0.310.350.12
Congo7.351.290.38
Cook Islands0.105.78
Costa Rica7.171.420.07
Croatia17.014.130.16
Cuba24.472.130.09
Curacao2.0512.550.68
Cyprus6.805.630.19
Czech Republic94.208.860.23
Denmark27.604.760.09
Djibouti0.680.680.13
Dominica0.070.910.09
Dominican Republic23.062.080.13
DR Congo3.420.040.04
Ecuador35.682.060.20
Egypt228.172.220.18
El Salvador6.661.030.13
Equatorial Guinea5.483.900.23
Eritrea0.720.130.05
Estonia11.548.870.24
Eswatini1.150.800.12
Ethiopia18.840.170.07
Falkland Islands0.025.90
Faroes00.04
Fiji1.591.720.16
Finland39.026.990.15
France 286.344.360.10
French Guiana0.351.14
French Polynesia0.903.090.17
Gabon5.662.630.18
Gambia0.540.240.10
Georgia11.362.910.22
Germany637.407.720.15
Ghana21.930.710.13
Gibraltar0.6518.430.22
Greece52.314.710.18
Greenland0.457.970
Grenada0.121.120.07
Guadeloupe0.851.88
Guatemala17.690.990.13
Guinea3.360.240.10
Guinea-Bissau0.310.150.08
Guyana3.324.200.23
Haiti3.410.300.10
Honduras8.830.910.17
Hong Kong35.054.640.08
Hungary49.635.160.16
Iceland3.068.920.16
India2,320.681.680.27
Indonesia594.282.180.19
Iran656.807.860.52
Iraq169.584.090.45
Ireland34.2070.08
Israel60.204.290.15
Italy295.134.990.13
Ivory Coast13.240.510.10
Jamaica5.902.030.23
Japan1,062.878.400.21
Jordan21.342.090.21
Kazakhstan222.6811.860.47
Kenya19.240.360.08
Kiribati0.070.570.29
Kuwait97.0122.550.51
Kyrgyzstan9.161.450.29
Laos19.382.710.34
Latvia7.253.830.12
Lebanon21.573.580.28
Lesotho0.710.310.14
Liberia1.430.280.20
Libya46.476.980.45
Lithuania14.254.990.14
Luxembourg8.0813.380.11
Macau2.143.280.06
Madagascar2.820.100.07
Malawi5.170.260.18
Malaysia252.077.670.29
Maldives2.054.460.30
Mali5.940.290.13
Malta1.633.740.08
Martinique0.731.90
Mauritania4.070.850.17
Mauritius3.762.950.15
Mexico422.633.160.18
Moldova8.782.180.28
Mongolia21.536.710.56
Morocco67.591.820.24
Mozambique7.980.250.21
Myanmar35.790.650.14
Namibia3.861.430.17
Nepal14.970.490.14
Netherlands142.278.280.15
New Caledonia5.1417.920.64
New Zealand34.687.170.16
Nicaragua4.820.750.14
Niger2.380.100.08
Nigeria116.070.560.11
North Korea53.072.050.43
North Macedonia7.593.640.23
Norway43.367.960.13
Oman81.9815.920.55
Pakistan193.960.930.17
Palau1.2856.874.45
Panama9.602.240.08
Papua New Guinea4.450.510.12
Paraguay7.961.130.09
Peru47.551.430.13
Philippines136.681.250.16
Poland296.337.810.24
Portugal40.803.990.12
Puerto Rico12.303.370.12
Qatar101.9436.520.41
Reunion2.602.90
Romania75.433.890.13
Russia1,789.2512.440.46
Rwanda1.440.110.05
Saint Helena, Ascension and Tristan da Cunha0.023.78
Saint Kitts and Nevis0.101.790.08
Saint Lucia0.251.400.12
Saint Pierre and Miquelon0.045.76
Saint Vincent and the Grenadines0.080.750.06
Samoa0.331.670.26
Sao Tome and Principe0.160.740.18
Saudi Arabia571.3416.460.35
Senegal10.800.630.19
Serbia 58.876.310.38
Seychelles1.0310.730.40
Sierra Leone0.970.120.07
Singapore53.949.090.10
Slovakia32.315.930.19
Slovenia13.556.510.17
Solomon Islands0.300.460.18
Somalia0.840.050.05
South Africa419.877.150.56
South Korea615.2711.950.28
Spain 216.984.670.13
Sri Lanka22.181.050.08
Sudan22.110.400.13
Suriname2.614.510.28
Sweden39.083.860.07
Switzerland 35.864.140.06
Syria26.081.381.13
Taiwan274.6411.530.21
Tajikistan9.380.990.27
Tanzania14.910.240.10
Thailand274.303.950.23
Timor-Leste0.540.390.09
Togo2.180.260.12
Tonga0.161.410.23
Trinidad and Tobago29.4321.360.83
Tunisia28.702.410.24
Turkey425.095.070.18
Turkmenistan66.5711.040.75
Turks and Caicos Islands0.092.380.11
Uganda6.720.140.07
Ukraine192.014.410.37
United Arab Emirates20120.480.32
United Kingdom320.544.760.11
United States4,466.7313.480.22
Uruguay6.901.970.09
Uzbekistan120.273.620.47
Vanuatu0.200.700.23
Venezuela77.802.350.51
Vietnam343.183.49
Western Sahara0.200.330.34
Yemen11.500.380.09
Zambia8.240.440.14
Zimbabwe8.830.500.28
showing: 208 rows

CO₂ Emissions by Country 2024

Which country has the highest CO2 emissions?

China emits the most CO2 globally. In 2020, it released 11,680.2 million tons (gigatons) of CO2. Palau had the highest emissions per capita, 55.29 million.

Frequently Asked Questions

Sources