Refugees by Country 2022

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Refugees are people who have been forced to flee their home country in order to escape conflict, violence, natural disaster, or persecution for reasons of race, religion, nationality, political stance, or association with a particular social group. According to the United Nations, an estimated 84 million people around the world were forcibly displaced by the midway point of 2021. The highest number ever recorded, this total included 26.6 million international refugees living in a nation other than their country of birth, 48 million individuals displaced in their own country, and 4.4 million people seeking asylum in a new country (as well as several million niche cases, such as stateless individuals). Half of today’s refugees are children.

The 2022 Ukrainian refugee crisis

Russia's invasion of Ukraine in February 2022 triggered a massive exodus of refugees out of Ukraine. While precise refugee counts will likely take until 2023 to compile (and so will not appear on this page's totals), the United Nations estimates the invasion has already generated at least 4.8 million international refugees, with an estimated 7.1 million more displaced individuals still inside the country. In April 2022, the UN called the Ukraine refugee crisis "the fastest and largest displacement of people in Europe since World War II."

Top 10 Countries Hosting the Highest Number of International Refugees (mid-2021 data):

  1. Turkey — 3,696,831
  2. Jordan — 3,027,729
  3. Uganda — 1,475,311
  4. Pakistan — 1,438,523
  5. Lebanon — 1,338,197
  6. Germany — 1,235,160
  7. Sudan — 1,068,339
  8. Bangladesh — 889,775
  9. Iran — 800,025
  10. Ethiopia — 782,896

Refugee relief efforts are often complicated by the fact that 80% of international refugees are escaping one of the world's developing countries only to settle in another—usually the closest neighboring country—with limited resources and capacity to offer aid. For instance, Uganda and Sudan are two of the leading refugee host nations in the world, but also two of the UN's least-developed countries according to the Human Development Index (HDI). In fact, Sudan is also one of the world's leading generators of refugees (see list further down this page). Wealthier, developed states typically have greater capacity to aid, accept, and incorporate refugees, but often also display less motivation to do so.

Refugee classifications

While the classic image of a refugee is that of a person moving to an entirely new country, these international refugees make up only a portion of the world's total displaced people. Many refugees who are forced to evacuate their homes lack the wherewithal and/or opportunity to travel to a new country, and so become refugees in their own home nation. These internally displaced people (IDPs) are actually more common than international refugees, whom IDPs outnumbered 48 million to 26.6 million in mid-2021. Other non-typical refugee types include asylum seekers, who arrive seeking international protection, and stateless people, who are not claimed as nationals by any country.

Which countries do most refugees come from?

Because refugees seek asylum due to specific causes such as violence, war, and persecution, certain countries prone to these conditions generate far more refugees than countries that are safer and more stable. In 2021, 68% of all refugees originated from just five countries: Syria, Venezuela, Afghanistan, South Sudan, and Myanmar. Moreover, Palestine's refugee totals are kept separate, likely due to its non-member status in the United Nations. If they were included and the percentage was adjusted to include the top six countries, it would be notably higher.

Top 10 Origin Countries of International Refugees (mid-2021 data):

  1. Syria — 6,761,560
  2. Venezuela — 3,944,279
  3. Palestine* — 3,372,780 (+2,373,430 IDPs)
  4. Afghanistan — 2,610,067
  5. South Sudan — 2,277,919
  6. Myanmar — 1,127,588
  7. Democratic Republic of the Congo — 864,510
  8. Sudan — 805,874
  9. Somalia — 790,022
  10. Central African Republic — 713,262

* Palestine is not a fully recognized member of the United Nations and as such is excluded from some totals.

Due to the Syrian Civil War, Syria generated the most international refugees in the world as of mid-2021. Most of the 6.7 million refugees to leave Syria have remained in the Middle East, hosted predominantly by Turkey (3.69 million), Lebanon (852k), Jordan (668k), and Germany (616k). Nearly 6.8 more IDPs are still displaced within the country.

Causes of refugee migration

Armed conflicts and wars are the most common reasons refugees leave their homes, as demonstrated by not only Syria, but also South Sudan, Afghanistan, Myanmar, Syria, and (obviously) 2022 Ukraine. Drought and famine, primarily brought on or amplified by climate change, is another prominent cause (as is the attendant food insecurity, such as in the Democratic Republic of the Congo). Many countries face multiple issues, such as Sudan and Somalia suffering through both drought and civil unrest, or Afghanistan enduring armed conflict, droughts, and also natural disasters.

Refugees by Country 2022

*Note: 2021 midyear data. Does not include 2022 Ukraine situation. International tallies include refugees from Palestine and Venezuela, which UNHCR/UNRWA may tabulate separately.
Country Tot. Refugees Harbored International* Domestic (IDPs) Asylum Seekers Stateless Others of Concern
Turkey4,019,0193,696,831322,188
Jordan3,077,1633,027,72948,368631,003
Uganda4,007,8371,475,31123,1262,509,400
Pakistan1,547,7321,438,52398,89810,1924772
Lebanon1,354,1091,338,1978,9326,980
Germany1,494,6211,235,160232,48126,980
Sudan3,649,4441,068,3392,552,17425,1023,829
Bangladesh2,251,506889,77527889,704472,000
Iran800,093800,0253434
Ethiopia4,740,226782,8963,954,7602,110460
Syria7,573,256587,2826,786,8468,761160,00030,367
Peru1,557,189520,057536,779500,353
DR Congo5,630,449519,8195,094,03516,595
Chad1,022,173508,304401,5114,548107,810
Ecuador508,668502,1036,565
Chile493,735485,4036,4511,881
Kenya581,984466,28654,87816,82044,000
France542,960457,15382,0322,0941,681
Cameroon1,486,347446,1011,032,9426,0591,245
United States1,585,140337,8701,247,22347
South Sudan2,295,806320,8791,710,9663,96110,000250,000
China304,134303,430704
Egypt334,992277,66557,3207
Iraq1,529,603272,2151,198,94011,16747,25328
Nigeria611,558245,449319,8953,10243,112
Sweden309,512244,94214,47250,098
Brazil446,598240,584206,00014
Tanzania253,030202,63527,82922,566
India228,345196,19412,47419,677
Argentina182,662171,86010,354448
Austria167,562146,02518,3083,229
United Kingdom223,578135,91283,4893,968209
Italy191,185134,49953,6863,000
Malaysia295,116131,10152,012112,003
Yemen4,183,640129,0014,042,83611,78815
Canada202,448125,42773,1983,823
Panama136,042124,41211,630
Rwanda145,959122,8062289,50013,425
Mexico311,088117,992114,5361378,547
Switzerland123,525117,1695,61268460
Dominican Republic116,087115,445642
Spain219,016115,25891,5856,0926,081
Greece171,676112,02249,3975,5524,705
Mauritania101,82599,0572,768
Algeria100,09297,8102,282
Netherlands107,09997,6217,3912,087
Thailand651,16696,175756554,103132
Burundi104,11176,83719,3994,9297672,179
South Africa250,19076,729173,461
Afghanistan3,361,96072,2263,204,80518784,742
Zambia99,97670,8374,57924,560
Venezuela1,087,36868,1395201,018,709
Belgium90,43565,90622,5161,159854
Australia143,84056,22979,8195,7702,022
Norway52,73747,7108734,154
Mali434,34446,885386,4541,005
Armenia46,43445,415127892
Denmark48,88336,43184411,608
Costa Rica127,52331,97195,27520572
Angola56,41125,93130,282198
Serbia243,66825,641211,8682202,1133,826
Finland32,47023,7465,3083,416
Guyana23,44123,330111
Burkina Faso1,334,39122,2911,312,07129
Djibouti34,86522,12311,4411,301
Bulgaria24,60421,7701,6911,143
Nepal20,56419,55264395553
Aruba17,20717,17829
Curacao17,07716,759318
Malawi51,07016,35934,461250
Cyprus41,12615,14121,919664,000
Russia73,10315,0521,09156,960
Uruguay26,76514,69012,0705
Senegal16,51014,5052,005
Ghana14,26712,3881,879
Somalia2,993,00811,9592,967,50013,53613
Papua New Guinea25,97511,86214,0001049
Bolivia11,85411,81935
Togo11,54110,831710
Indonesia14,21810,0763,309668165
Zimbabwe22,5539,46712,101985
Ireland16,6299,4217,00210799
Malta12,3599,2603,08811
Central African Republic726,1459,174716,678293
Liberia38,4588,44130,017
Trinidad And Tobago29,5998,12121,089389
Morocco14,9436,9208,023
Tajikistan15,4406,7802,5196,141
Guinea8,9456,2392,706
Hungary5,8775,73611130
Paraguay6,7275,6251,102
Luxembourg7,0175,1581,58019485
Mozambique816,2594,768788,09123,400
Gambia4,6264,419207
Romania5,9943,7761,723314181
Libya267,0843,701223,94939,434
Namibia5,8023,5372,265
South Korea17,8143,50314,107204
Poland8,4923,1663,9371,389
Belarus9,1642,9241366,104
Tunisia8,5072,6785,78346
Portugal3,0122,6503034514
Ukraine2,394,8062,310734,0002,62135,8751,620,000
Ivory Coast955,3612,119223952,96950
Lithuania5,0561,8804552,721
Israel41,5151,86029,1564210,457
Guinea Bissau1,8761,84630
Georgia292,8131,795289,2131,271534
New Zealand2,4471,785662
Azerbaijan659,1511,603653,921423,585
Iceland1,8091,53520173
Benin1,9281,427501
United Arab Emirates8,6641,2967,2385125
Japan25,6041,13223,765707
Slovakia2,5971,012531,532
Eswatini2,1389871,151
Croatia5,6899655832,9101,231
Colombia11,205,7099648,143,75830,599111,287,450
Nauru1,180964771336
Sri Lanka12,43695211,273211
Slovenia1,14383325357
Philippines251,717794120,640519392129,372
Kuwait93,8707401,09092,02020
Latvia209,86967823209,168
Botswana7286447311
Guatemala103,6814711,069102,141
Bosnia And Herzegovina100,56341696,3051771493,516
Moldova3,819405423,372
Kazakhstan8,5503992367,915
Sierra Leone342342
Saudi Arabia80,45133510,11670,000
Gabon39633363
Kyrgyzstan79532745216
Nicaragua1,011311126574
Oman637307330
North Macedonia3,748296175532,882
Lesotho514295219
Estonia72,1762881571,873
Hong Kong265265
Bahrain358251107
Grenada234234
Cuba2122075
Qatar1,6432002431,200
Montenegro1,8631721394581,094
Madagascar3941561299
Liechtenstein14613115
Honduras252,314124247,090605,040
Eritrea13812117
Albania2,7181071,5281,083
Jamaica99945
Cayman Islands1209030
Belize5,722652,1573,500
Cambodia57,542326657,444
El Salvador71,8893271,50067290
Monaco2222
Anguilla2121
Turkmenistan4,127204,107
Mauritius2020
Bahamas28208
British Virgin Islands2020
Suriname2,037192,018
Saint Kitts And Nevis1616
Saint Vincent And the Grenadines1414
Uzbekistan59,1491359,136
Fiji18135
Turks And Caicos Islands1385
Vietnam30,58130,581
Myanmar1,169,591569,591600,000
Haiti55
Singapore1,1091,109
Palestine2,373,4302,373,430
Mongolia281711
Cape Verde115115
Brunei20,86320,863
Vanuatu55
Barbados55
Sint Maarten99

Refugees by Country 2022

Sources