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Total Refugees Originated

1000000

2000000

3000000

4000000

5000000

6000000

7000000

8000000

9000000

10000000

11000000

12000000

13000000

14000000

Click on a country for details.

Refugees by Country 2024

Refugees are people who have been forced to flee their home country in order to escape conflict, violence, natural disaster, or persecution for reasons of race, religion, nationality, political stance, or association with a particular social group. According to the United Nations, an estimated 100 million people around the world were forcibly displaced by the midway point of 2023. This total included 30 million international refugees living in a nation other than their country of birth, 57 million individuals displaced in their own country, and 6 million people seeking asylum in a new country (as well as several million niche cases, such as stateless individuals). Half of today’s refugees are children.

The 2022 Ukrainian refugee crisis

Russia's invasion of Ukraine in February 2022 triggered a massive exodus of refugees out of Ukraine. In April 2022, the UN called the Ukraine refugee crisis "the fastest and largest displacement of people in Europe since World War II." By the end of 2023, even though more than a million Ukrainians had returned to their homes during the year, approximately 5.8-6.2 million Ukrainians remained international refugees and another 5 million were still internally displaced within Ukraine.

Top 10 Countries Hosting the Highest Number of International Refugees (mid-2021 data):

Country
International
Syria6,494,141
Afghanistan6,110,219
Palestine6,042,673
Ukraine5,865,447
South Sudan2,227,684
Myanmar1,266,022
Sudan1,027,070
DR Congo948,417
Somalia814,561
Central African Republic750,875

Refugee relief efforts are often complicated by the fact that 80% of international refugees are escaping one of the world's developing countries only to settle in another—usually the closest neighboring country—with limited resources and capacity to offer aid. For instance, Uganda and Sudan are two of the leading refugee host nations in the world, but also two of the UN's least-developed countries according to the Human Development Index (HDI). In fact, Sudan is also one of the world's leading generators of refugees (see list further down this page). Wealthier, developed states typically have greater capacity to aid, accept, and incorporate refugees, but often also display less motivation to do so.

Refugee classifications

While the classic image of a refugee is that of a person moving to an entirely new country, these international refugees make up only a portion of the world's total displaced people. Many refugees who are forced to evacuate their homes lack the wherewithal and/or opportunity to travel to a new country, and so become refugees in their own home nation. These internally displaced people (IDPs) are actually more common than international refugees, whom IDPs outnumbered 48 million to 26.6 million in mid-2021. Other non-typical refugee types include asylum seekers, who arrive seeking international protection, and stateless people, who are not claimed as nationals by any country.

Note also that the definition of a refugee may include not only the person displaced, but the children of refugees as well, operating under the logic that the child of a displaced person is also displaced regardless of whether that child ever lived in the country from which their parent was displaced. According to the United Nations, both the United Nations Relief and Works Agency for Palestine Refugees in the Near East (UNRWA), which serves Palestinian refugees throughout the Middle East, and the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR), which serves the rest of the world, apply this same broad definition:

"Under international law and the principle of family unity, the children of refugees and their descendants are also considered refugees until a durable solution is found. Both UNRWA and UNHCR recognize descendants as refugees on this basis, a practice that has been widely accepted by the international community, including both donors and refugee hosting countries.

Palestine refugees are not distinct from other protracted refugee situations such as those from Afghanistan or Somalia, where there are multiple generations of refugees, considered by UNHCR as refugees and supported as such."

Which countries do most refugees come from?

Because refugees seek asylum due to specific causes such as violence, war, and persecution, certain countries prone to these conditions generate far more refugees than countries that are safer and more stable.

Due to the Syrian Civil War, Syria has generated the most international refugees in the world several years running. Mid-2021 data from the United Nations confirmed that most of the 6.7 million refugees to leave Syria had remained in the Middle East, hosted predominantly by Turkey (3.69 million), Lebanon (852k), Jordan (668k), and Germany (616k). In addition, nearly 6.8 more people who could not leave remained within Syria as internally displaced people (IDPs), refugees within their own country.

Colombia, too, hosts a massive IDP population, due largely to ongoing land ownership conflicts. Additionally, the 2022 Russo-Ukrainian War also had a massive impact on refugee totals, and the civil and economic turmoil in Venezuela continues to displace millions of people both domestically and internationally. However, as of mid-2023, Syria remained the leading origin country for international refugees.

Top 10 Origin Countries of International Refugees (mid-2023):

Country
Total Refugees Originated
Syria13.5M
Ukraine12.6M
Venezuela10.2M
Afghanistan9.7M
Colombia7.8M
DR Congo7.5M
Palestine6.1M
Somalia4.9M
Yemen4.6M
Sudan4.2M

Note: Totals include international refugees and individuals in refugee-like situations, asylum seekers, others of concern to UNHCR, and the unique-to-Venezuela "Other people in need of international protection" category. Totals exclude internally displaced persons (IDPs) and refugees who returned home during 2023.

Causes of refugee migration

Armed conflicts and wars are the most common reasons refugees leave their homes, as demonstrated by not only Syria, but also South Sudan, Afghanistan, Myanmar, Syria, and (obviously) 2022 Ukraine. Drought and famine, primarily brought on or amplified by climate change, is another prominent cause (as is the attendant food insecurity, such as in the Democratic Republic of the Congo). Many countries face multiple issues, such as Sudan and Somalia suffering through both drought and civil unrest; or Afghanistan enduring armed conflict, droughts, and also natural disasters.

  • Data in Table 1 indicate refugees by Country of Origin. Values are mid-year 2023 tallies for all indicators except IDPs, which are 2022 end-of-year totals. All refugee counts are best-possible estimates, but may not be backed by official census data.
  • Refugees Originated is an umbrella category that includes international refugees and people living in refugee-like conditions, IDPs, asylum seekers, and all other UN categories of displaced people, commonly referred to as "refugees".
  • Data for Serbia include Kosovo.
  • Palestine total combines 119,583 individuals served by UNHCR and 5,936,247 served by UNRWA.
  • Venezuela totals include 5,322,120 individuals classified as "Other people in need of international protection", a category unique to Venezuela, which refers to Venezuelans living abroad in refugee-like conditions but who have not been reported under other categories (asylum-seekers, refugees).
  • In addition to per-country totals, UNHCR data include another 596,708 individuals whose nationality is unknown, as well as 4,391,680 "stateless" individuals, who live in refugee-like conditions but are not legally considered nationals of any country.

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Country
Total Refugees Originated
International
Domestic (IDPs)
Asylum Seekers
Others of Concern
Came Home
Syria13.5M6,494,1416,673,353160,2094,441142,410
Ukraine12.6M5,865,4475,088,00037,190377,3681,274,000
Venezuela10.2M300,75901,184,8893,354,8300
Afghanistan9.7M6,110,2193,252,741324,52936,4457,340
Colombia7.8M111,3946,886,426220,456542,7730
DR Congo7.5M948,4175,969,254156,16117,165432,800
Palestine6.1M6,042,673010,3862,7710
Somalia4.9M814,5613,860,09993,076101,009333
Yemen4.6M43,5314,523,02233,427239
Sudan4.2M1,027,0703,020,517124,2231,90717,228
Nigeria3.9M381,1493,417,93684,432818,797
South Sudan3.9M2,227,6841,490,0646,700161148,238
Myanmar3.3M1,266,0221,845,20849,52247389,402
Ethiopia3M145,0392,123,435129,9045,360607,195
Burkina Faso2.2M43,1242,062,53471,51500
Iraq1.8M330,6671,157,115223,82425,92313,571
Central African Republic1.4M750,875485,82513,7552,205104,220
Cameroon1.2M133,9451,027,29529,283828,122
Mozambique893K111834,3048,6901549,865
Azerbaijan708.4K43,305658,7936,28900
Honduras674.6K72,341247,090209,130146,0890
Mali672.1K233,188375,53910,9261052,416
Eritrea632.9K537,161086,0569,6870
Chad570.1K9,447381,28939,642139,7600
Mexico420.1K18,944262,411138,75550
Burundi405.5K323,4878,17763,2846,0354,505
Niger399.5K23,280335,2773,14437,7790
Philippines367.1K60395,1935,365183,04482,895
Cuba350K15,9810319,17014,8190
Haiti349.4K116,4630195,42537,4820
Georgia344.4K14,426294,43135,52300
Guatemala308.1K32,2200169,416106,5060
El Salvador300.8K62,24871,500142,46924,6250
Nicaragua295.1K18,5450271,7404,7850
China288.1K161,5740120,9475,5670
Rwanda281.5K249,543018,73912,2461,003
Serbia248.3K30,333209,7968,1332040
Iran225.2K147,238077,7981445
Turkey221.9K115,7080105,9571970
Russia195.1K85,382094,14615,5960
Libya187K18,559161,6136,751385
Pakistan181.4K115,662065,3883890
Sri Lanka174.8K147,6247,14818,34371,628
India141.8K23,2430118,1333880
Bosnia and Herzegovina117.1K19,32696,3051,48000
Papua New Guinea91.9K61090,63460900
Western Sahara91.8K91,016075100
Bangladesh91K25,311065,5981110
Ecuador78K3,774046,51127,7530
Brazil66.3K3,248062,1289260
Guinea65.6K38,089027,47900
Egypt61K24,652036,1512120
Peru52.2K4,481047,69000
Ivory Coast48K25,264022,731410
Mauritania46.7K37,21609,50900
Albania45.9K21,750024,18100
Angola45.2K12,456019,40813,3630
Lebanon39.4K7,46709,98421,9200
Armenia31.6K15,553016,021130
Vietnam30K18,045011,887680
Morocco27.2K10,451015,9667530
Senegal27.1K13,462013,62400
Republic of the Congo24.5K13,224011,171830
Belarus24K13,564010,458110
Indonesia23.8K11,820011,0799500
Ghana23.7K14,73308,94300
Nepal22.7K7,314014,9944230
Malaysia21.7K1,380020,32100
Uganda20.8K7,719013,010380
Chile20.6K1,619016,8962,1340
Kenya20.1K7,594012,53650
Uzbekistan19.5K4,551011,5303,4420
Algeria17.9K7,788010,034450
Croatia17.7K17,5870113170
Gambia16.3K10,96405,33400
Zimbabwe15.6K7,26808,1871720
Togo15.2K7,96307,25600
Sierra Leone13.9K6,99004,9691,9100
Kazakhstan13.7K3,74809,96900
Cambodia12.7K11,67001,01800
Jordan12.5K3,88907,3491,3060
Moldova12.2K5,61106,56850
Tunisia9.7K2,93006,80580
Romania9.3K1,76407,49800
Liberia8.9K4,91403,1248660
Kyrgyzstan8.9K3,33405,56900
Dominican Republic8.4K80407,56300
Tajikistan7.9K3,67904,19700
Mongolia7.9K2,42005,44050
Jamaica7.2K1,99305,15800
Laos7.1K6,641050600
Bhutan7.1K6,682044700
North Macedonia7.1K1,86205,20950
Kuwait4.8K2,03002,712100
South Africa4.6K81103,81660
Turkmenistan4K2,87401,16100
Saudi Arabia3.9K2,10001,748280
Fiji3.6K33203,31700
Argentina3.6K26803,34750
Hungary3.6K1,98701,62600
Bolivia3.6K56403,04800
Thailand3.5K21803,31800
Guinea Bissau3.3K2,10601,22300
Tanzania3.2K85202,276310
Djibouti3K1,78701,22400
Bahamas2.7K94501,71400
Namibia2.6K33502,195430
Comoros2.6K2,074049600
Benin2.4K86201,49900
Trinidad and Tobago2K30107839550
Poland2K95301,05600
Malawi1.9K50601,36100
Israel1.8K813098500
Montenegro1.7K61301,11100
Costa Rica1.7K22701,46600
Paraguay1.7K15601,53500
Panama1.6K19001,45400
Solomon Islands1.6K461,00057600
Gabon1.5K825070600
Italy1.5K13201,32000
Tonga1.4K4001,31100
Guyana1.3K24801,09100
Hong Kong1.2K21001,01400
Botswana1.1K1020979280
Spain1.1K6201,01700
South Korea1.1K120094300
Madagascar8595350299250
Zambia838303053050
Mauritius833214061900
Czech Republic830608022200
Portugal81943077600
Bulgaria811395041150
Slovakia759612014700
Uruguay74491065300
Belize71065064500
Equatorial Guinea708383032500
Timor Leste6996069300
Germany693148054500
United Kingdom680227045300
Vanuatu6435063800
Barbados591280031100
Bahrain542336020600
France49355043800
Canada483201028200
Samoa4038039500
United Arab Emirates398209018900
North Korea372239013300
Greece349119023000
French Guiana34411033300
Dominica33063026700
Latvia315143017200
Eswatini3101220176120
Saint Lucia29998020100
Saint Vincent and the Grenadines290133015700
Netherlands23957018200
Ireland2086020200
Cape Verde20410019400
Grenada19254013800
Sweden18719016800
Suriname18741014600
Lithuania18657012900
Japan18351013200
Oman1707809200
Singapore16737013000
Belgium13512012300
Maldives1169002600
Estonia1136205100
Antigua and Barbuda1125505700
Qatar1054905600
Guadeloupe1001708300
Australia882905900
Saint Kitts and Nevis782205600
New Zealand754802700
Bermuda56005600
Austria472801900
Slovenia38703100
Lesotho371201960
Sao Tome and Principe311102000
Finland30003000
Macau301002000
Denmark28002800
Cyprus28002800
Switzerland26002600
Norway251001500
Kiribati25002500
Turks and Caicos Islands25190600
Nauru24501900
Curacao21210000
Seychelles1790800
Brunei14001400
Niue1380500
Malta800800
Andorra800800
Luxembourg550000
Iceland500500
Marshall Islands500500
Liechtenstein550000
Palau500500
Anguilla500500
Martinique000000
Micronesia000000
Aruba000000
Cayman Islands000000
Monaco000000
San Marino000000
Cook Islands000000
Vatican City000000
showing: 207 rows

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Country
Total Refugees Harbored
International
Domestic (IDPs)
Asylum Seekers
Stateless
Others
Went Home
Colombia9,906,3281,4976,886,42623,839112,994,5550
Syria7,018,61013,0246,673,3535,832160,00023,991142,410
DR Congo6,925,576520,0735,969,2543,44900432,800
Ukraine6,748,4132,5325,088,00046036,235347,2591,274,000
Yemen4,594,49857,4494,523,02214,0030159
Sudan4,001,147926,4333,020,51733,27203,69717,228
Somalia3,896,60616,7363,860,09919,2620176333
Ethiopia3,657,100921,8222,123,4354,0380610607,195
Turkey3,630,0203,368,9760260,6054390
Nigeria3,535,36792,9643,417,9365,6700018,797
Iran3,443,5343,443,52207705
Afghanistan3,346,18252,1623,252,741227033,7127,340
Venezuela3,237,49429,33901,57803,206,577
Germany2,873,4272,509,5060349,03429,5620
United States of America2,584,635389,33502,195,30000
Myanmar2,410,97901,845,2080630,000089,402
Pakistan2,129,5332,080,501048,89359139
Burkina Faso2,099,31836,2262,062,534558000
South Sudan1,957,177314,8831,490,0642,6061,30086148,238
Uganda1,628,6371,512,681048,95667,0000
Cameroon1,534,283469,2771,027,2958,55401,03528,122
Peru1,534,2126,7510538,9750988,486
Iraq1,471,262279,2401,157,11511,2468,0002,09013,571
Russia1,343,8851,249,342077393,8020
Chad1,289,063762,731381,2895,3920139,6510
Poland995,025989,87703,8201,4251,328
Bangladesh961,817961,801016961,72900
Ivory Coast952,4062,293019,009931,041630
Mozambique917,5495,331834,30427,389066049,865
Mexico856,912105,272262,411259,36413229,852
Lebanon834,600799,17507,769027,656
Kenya742,798519,3530104,49016,779102,176
Jordan741,326695,821044,160641,345
France708,600641,626065,2224,1111,752
Thailand678,50294,93801,161582,403473
Niger675,162251,755335,27750,356037,774
Azerbaijan668,8176,280658,7931593,58500
Central African Republic645,93811,322485,82544,57100104,220
Brazil593,648193,976089,5195310,1480
Ecuador566,28661,44109,3640495,4810
United Kingdom541,049365,2620175,4385,596349
Spain532,640369,7220154,4408,5248,478
Honduras508,576176247,0901210261,189
Mali492,84863,999375,5398940052,416
Chile454,1292,173012,4401,728437,7880
Costa Rica424,52515,6110195,463287213,1640
Italy413,682308,6630102,0283,0020
Egypt384,287300,128084,1541000
Czech Republic353,875351,33801,0461,5775370
Panama353,7922,59608,2660342,930
Canada322,844150,1920169,0924,08400
Georgia321,98426,096294,4319315260
Austria314,259277,158035,7433,30100
Philippines308,16790395,193884266128,03382,895
Sweden291,700258,117012,54640,4370
India260,055247,822012,23322,1100
Netherlands259,444224,320033,1735,1720
Tanzania254,580203,605038,643012,332
Serbia246,06430,866209,7962012,3972,77640
Malaysia245,226133,821046,937114,45955,771
Latvia233,16145,2370360187,5640
Argentina231,0684,109011,68924215,2460
Libya206,0721,552161,61342,902005
Switzerland204,183189,100014,9861,07497
Bulgaria199,238189,57709,59599800
Belgium198,479156,921040,8809396780
Greece190,816169,393017,7854,4883,638
Australia147,47954,430090,5498,3132,5000
Rwanda144,943118,50109,1169,5006,8231,003
South Africa144,47562,537081,93800
Romania141,169139,08101,918294170
Guatemala123,98278801,8630121,331
Dominican Republic118,01366502,5430114,8050
Ireland116,53599,048017,487370
Moldova112,047106,94501,7953,3070
Estonia108,68640,371021468,1100
Mauritania108,199103,44104,75800
Slovakia108,084105,1040542,9350
Papua New Guinea104,45610,51690,6343,30600
Algeria103,13999,38903,750000
Burundi102,14784,1878,1773,0137831,4824,505
Bosnia and Herzegovina97,99331096,30565311,2990
Kuwait93,651693094592,00013
Norway93,40586,44905,2593,8240
Finland89,15680,18905,9883,4030
Zambia88,03366,51304,317017,203
El Salvador81,03910671,50015809,2750
Denmark80,45569,33702,56311,40800
Lithuania75,81973,17002692,4270
Cambodia75,029240575,00000
Saudi Arabia74,41047303,93770,0000
Republic of the Congo71,55242,172019,069010,3110
Israel68,3971,221025,4533541,688
Cyprus68,14033,872034,2687700
Portugal60,20759,3110896240
Hungary58,02657,939051430
Angola56,02524,983028,29402,7480
Malawi51,47134,972016,49405
Uruguay46,0011,222021,151523,628
Montenegro41,55740,5970146485329
Trinidad and Tobago39,5073,407024,267011,833
Uzbekistan38,43813,0250025,4130
Belarus37,53231,60203445,58600
Armenia35,91634,757062853100
Togo32,74618,846013,90000
Djibouti30,52721,61208,915000
Japan28,42315,451012,4735080
Vietnam26,830190026,8110
Croatia26,21723,78901,2737334350
South Korea24,3523,907020,2142390
Zimbabwe23,13910,181011,9860972
Brunei20,86300020,86300
Nepal20,34919,5620220474567
Guyana19,783320116019,635
Morocco19,4848,244011,24000
Aruba17,000000017,0000
Bolivia16,6051,116061015,4280
Curacao14,000000014,0000
Malta13,40211,41301,98900
Tajikistan13,3778,17701,0564,1440
Luxembourg13,30210,63902,561182102
Indonesia12,3369,22702,930911179
Senegal12,10611,821028500
Slovenia11,83010,68401,136225
Belize11,57914501,98209,4520
Ghana11,0756,86604,20900
Sri Lanka9,5675677,14822414001,628
Benin9,2632,67506,588000
Kazakhstan9,24834506378,2660
Iceland9,0626,19302,827640
North Macedonia8,6588,2520323695
United Arab Emirates8,6171,39307,1060118
Tunisia8,5253,40905,093023
Paraguay7,5205,89101,3180311
Namibia7,2224,89502,242085
Albania7,1373,828052,1261,1780
Gambia4,1743,749042500
Turkmenistan3,36514003,3510
Suriname2,8362502,81100
New Zealand2,6621,787087550
Eswatini2,6111,18001,4190120
Guinea2,2552,20105400
Liberia1,7731,146062700
Qatar1,53319301401,2000
Kyrgyzstan1,25525307752270
Singapore1,1140051,1090
China1,0442870757000
Nicaragua1,01931101240584
Solomon Islands1,00001,000000
Botswana9227540970710
Bahamas7641003107230
Oman716295042100
Lesotho635308032106
Liechtenstein62160501600
Madagascar429520358019
Cayman Islands40947024601160
Bahrain3772550122000
Hon Kong30430400000
Gabon28120507600
Grenada2340000234
Sierra Leone2100000210
Cuba186157022070
Eritrea136119000170
Sint Maarten1310013100
Cape Verde11500011500
Antigua and Barbuda10500001050
Jamaica983100067
Saint Kitts and Nevis740014060
Anguilla560000560
Guinea-Bissau542403000
Mongolia321000175
Fiji21160500
Monaco17170000
Mauritius1350800
Barbados101000000
Comoros101000000
Turks and Caicos Islands770000
Saint Vincent and the Grenadines700007
Dominica0000000
Haiti000000
Laos000000
Nauru000000
Saint Lucia000000
Samoa000000
showing: 184 rows

Refugees by Country 2024

Which country has the highest rate of refugees?

Syria has the highest number of refugees, with 13.5M.

Frequently Asked Questions

Sources