The COVID-19 vaccine was created in 2020 in response to the SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19) virus. As of mid-June 2021, there have been over 176.6 confirmed cases of COVID-19 globally, including 3.83 million deaths, according to the World Health Organization.
There have been over 2.37 billion COVID-19 vaccines administered globally.
Types of Vaccines
mRNA vaccines contain COVID-19 virus material that gives the body’s cells instructions to create a protein unique to the virus. After our cells copy this protein, they destroy the genetic material from the vaccine and recognize the protein should not be there. In response, they build T-lymphocytes and B-lymphocytes to remember how to fight the virus in the future.
Protein subunit vaccines include harmless proteins of the virus instead of the entire germ. Our bodies recognize that the protein should not be there and build T-lymphocytes and antibodies to remember how to fight the virus.
Vector vaccines contain a modified version of a different virus than the one that causes COVID-19. The “viral vector” is the martial inside the shall of the modified virus that gives our cells instructions to make a protein unique to the virus. Then, our bodies make copies of the protein, prompting our bodies to make T-lymphocytes and B-lymphocytes that will remember how to fight the virus in the future.
What COVID-19 Vaccines are Available Globally
Several types of vaccines are now available globally. These include:
- Johnson & Johnson
- AstraZeneca-Oxford COVID-19 vaccine
Pfizer-BioNTech and Moderna COVID-19 vaccines account for more than 60% of the total COVID-19 market estimate.
The Pfizer-BioNTech (BNT162b2) vaccine is an mRNA vaccine that requires two doses, 21 days apart. According to clinical trial evidence, the Pfizer vaccine was 95% effective at preventing laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 illness. The Moderna (mRNA-1273) vaccine is an mRNA vaccine that requires two doses, 28 days apart. According to clinical trial evidence, the Moderna vaccine was 94.1% effective at preventing laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 illness.
The Johnson & Johnson (JNJ-78436735) vaccine is a viral vector vaccine that requires one dose. The J&J vaccine was shown to be 66.3% effective in clinical trials. The AstraZeneca vaccine is a viral vector vaccine, like Johnson & Johnson’s. The vaccine is given in two doses with a suggested gap of eight to 12 weeks between doses. Its efficacy has ranged from 70.4% from initial studies to 76% several months later. Additionally, a group given a lower initial dose reported 90% efficacy, but more research needs to be done to confirm this.
COVID-19 Vaccination Rates by Country
Vaccination rates vary drastically by country. Approximately 2.7 billion doses have been administered globally, and about 767 million people are fully vaccinated, or about 10% of the world. About 38 million vaccines are administered daily.
Seychelles has the highest percentage of people fully vaccinated at 68.64%, followed by San Marino at 65.48%. The United States has the ninth-highest percentage of fully vaccinated people at 45.59% and [vaccination rates vary greatly by state].
Only 0.9% of people in low-income countries have received at least one dose. Uganda has one of the lowest percentages of fully vaccinated people, with less than 0.01%. Only 0.01% of South Sudan’s population is fully vaccinated, and only 0.03% of Zambia’s population is fully vaccinated.
The table below has each country’s number of administered vaccines, the number of fully vaccinated people, and the percentage of the population that is fully vaccinated.