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Electoral System

In transition

Mixed

Not applicable

Other

Plurality/Majority

Plurality/Majority and PR

Proportional

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Electoral Systems by Country 2024

There are many electoral systems used worldwide. Here is a summary explanation of the various types of electoral systems in alphabetical order.

Approval Voting

Under this system, the type of voting is majoritarian based on candidates, using a multiple-choice ballot that uses a plurality rule to determine a single winner or multi-winner.

Borda Count

Under this system, the type of voting is majoritarian/semi-proportional based on candidates, using a ranked-choice ballot that uses a plurality rule to determine a single winner or multi-winner.

Condorcet Method

Under this system, the type of voting is majoritarian based on candidates, using a ranked-choice ballot that uses a majority against every candidate rule to determine a single winner.

Cumulative Voting

Under this system, the type of voting is majoritarian/semi-proportional based on candidates, using a cumulative ballot that uses a plurality rule to determine a single winner or multi-winner.

Dual Member Proportional

Under this system, the type of voting is semi-proportional/proportional based on a list or candidates, using a single-choice ballot that uses a plurality rule to determine a multi-winner.

Exhaustive Ballot

Under this system, the type of voting is majoritarian based on candidates, using a single-choice ballot that uses a majority rule to determine a single winner or multi-winner.

First-Past-The-Post (FPTP)

Under this two-round system, the type of voting is majoritarian based on candidates, using a single-choice ballot that uses a plurality rule to determine a single winner.

Instant-Runoff Voting

Under this system, the type of voting is majoritarian based on candidates, using a ranked-choice ballot that uses a majority rule to determine a single winner.

Limited Voting

Under this system, the type of voting is semi-proportional based on candidates, using a multiple-choice ballot that uses a plurality rule to determine a multi-winner.

Multiple Transferable Vote

Under this system, the type of voting is majoritarian based on candidates, using a ranked-choice ballot that uses a majority rule to determine a multi-winner.

Party-Block Voting

Under this system, the type of voting is majoritarian based on a list, using a single-choice ballot that uses a plurality rule to determine a multi-winner.

Party-List Proportional Representation (list-PR)

Under this system, the type of voting is semi-proportional/proportional based on a list or open list of candidates, using a single-choice ballot that uses a quota or divisor method to determine a multi-winner.

Plurality Block Voting

Under this system, the type of voting is majoritarian based on candidates, using a multiple-choice ballot that uses a plurality rule to determine a multi-winner.

Score Voting

Under this system, the type of voting is majoritarian/semi-proportional based on candidates, using a score ballot that uses a plurality rule to determine a single winner or multi-winner.

Seat-Linkage Compensatory Combination of FPTP + List-PR

Under this system, the type of voting is semi-proportional/proportional based on candidates + list, using a single-choice ballot that uses a mixed compensatory rule to determine a multi-winner (single winner in districts).

Single Non-Transferable Vote

Under this system, the type of voting is semi-proportional based on candidates, using a single-choice ballot that uses a plurality rule to determine a multi-winner.

Single Transferable Vote

Under this system, the type of voting is semi-proportional/proportional based on candidates, using a ranked-choice ballot that uses a quota rule to determine a multi-winner.

Superposition - Non-Compensatory Combo of FPTP + List-PR

Under this system, the type of voting is semi-proportional based on candidates + list using a single-choice ballot that uses a mixed non-compensatory rule to determine a multi-winner (single winner in districts).

Two-Round Block Voting

Under this system, the type of voting is majoritarian based on candidates, using a multiple-choice ballot that uses a majority rule to determine a multi-winner.

Two-Round System

Under this system, the type of voting is majoritarian based on candidates, using a single-choice ballot that uses a majority rule to determine a single winner.

Positive Vote Transfer System

Under this system, the type of voting is semi-proportional/proportional based on candidates + list, using a single-choice ballot that uses a mixed compensatory rule to determine a multi-winner (single winner in districts).

  • According to the International Institute for Democracy and Electoral Assistance (IDEA), most electoral systems fall into one of three categories:plurality/majority systems, proportional systems (PR), and mixed systems.

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Country
Electoral System
AfghanistanOther
AlbaniaProportional
AlgeriaProportional
AndorraMixed
AngolaProportional
AnguillaPlurality/Majority
Antigua and BarbudaPlurality/Majority
ArgentinaProportional
ArmeniaProportional
ArubaProportional
AustraliaPlurality/Majority
AustriaProportional
AzerbaijanPlurality/Majority
BahamasPlurality/Majority
BahrainPlurality/Majority
BangladeshPlurality/Majority
BarbadosPlurality/Majority
BelarusPlurality/Majority
BelgiumProportional
BelizePlurality/Majority
BeninProportional
BermudaPlurality/Majority
BhutanPlurality/Majority
BoliviaMixed
Bosnia and HerzegovinaProportional
BotswanaPlurality/Majority
BrazilProportional
British Virgin IslandsPlurality/Majority
BruneiNot applicable
BulgariaProportional
Burkina FasoProportional
BurundiProportional
CambodiaProportional
CameroonPlurality/Majority
CanadaPlurality/Majority
Cape VerdeProportional
Cayman IslandsPlurality/Majority
Central African RepublicPlurality/Majority
ChadPlurality/Majority
ChileProportional
ChinaNot applicable
ColombiaProportional
ComorosPlurality/Majority
Cook IslandsPlurality/Majority
Costa RicaProportional
CroatiaProportional
CubaPlurality/Majority
CyprusProportional
Czech RepublicProportional
DenmarkProportional
DjiboutiMixed
DominicaPlurality/Majority
Dominican RepublicProportional
DR CongoPlurality/Majority and PR
EcuadorProportional
EgyptPlurality/Majority
El SalvadorProportional
Equatorial GuineaProportional
EritreaNot applicable
EstoniaProportional
EswatiniPlurality/Majority
EthiopiaPlurality/Majority
Falkland IslandsPlurality/Majority
FijiProportional
FinlandProportional
FrancePlurality/Majority
GabonPlurality/Majority
GambiaPlurality/Majority
GeorgiaMixed
GermanyMixed
GhanaPlurality/Majority
GibraltarOther
GreeceProportional
GreenlandProportional
GrenadaPlurality/Majority
GuatemalaProportional
GuernseyPlurality/Majority
GuineaMixed
Guinea BissauProportional
GuyanaProportional
HaitiPlurality/Majority
HondurasProportional
HungaryMixed
IcelandProportional
IndiaPlurality/Majority
IndonesiaProportional
IranPlurality/Majority
IraqPlurality/Majority
IrelandProportional
Isle of ManPlurality/Majority
IsraelProportional
ItalyMixed
Ivory CoastPlurality/Majority
JamaicaPlurality/Majority
JapanMixed
JerseyPlurality/Majority
JordanProportional
KazakhstanMixed
KenyaPlurality/Majority
KiribatiPlurality/Majority
KuwaitOther
KyrgyzstanMixed
LaosPlurality/Majority
LatviaProportional
LebanonProportional
LesothoMixed
LiberiaPlurality/Majority
LibyaMixed
LiechtensteinProportional
LithuaniaMixed
LuxembourgProportional
MadagascarPlurality/Majority and PR
MalawiPlurality/Majority
MalaysiaPlurality/Majority
MaldivesPlurality/Majority
MaliPlurality/Majority
MaltaProportional
Marshall IslandsPlurality/Majority
MauritaniaMixed
MauritiusPlurality/Majority
MexicoMixed
MicronesiaPlurality/Majority
MoldovaProportional
MonacoMixed
MongoliaPlurality/Majority
MontenegroProportional
MontserratPlurality/Majority
MoroccoProportional
MozambiqueProportional
MyanmarPlurality/Majority
NamibiaProportional
NauruOther
NepalMixed
NetherlandsProportional
New ZealandMixed
NicaraguaProportional
NigerProportional
NigeriaPlurality/Majority
NiuePlurality/Majority
North KoreaPlurality/Majority
North MacedoniaProportional
NorwayProportional
OmanPlurality/Majority
PakistanMixed
PalauPlurality/Majority
PalestineMixed
PanamaProportional
Papua New GuineaPlurality/Majority
ParaguayProportional
PeruProportional
PhilippinesMixed
PolandProportional
PortugalProportional
QatarPlurality/Majority
Republic of the CongoPlurality/Majority
RomaniaProportional
RussiaMixed
RwandaProportional
Saint Kitts and NevisPlurality/Majority
Saint LuciaPlurality/Majority
Saint Vincent and the GrenadinesPlurality/Majority
SamoaPlurality/Majority
San MarinoProportional
Sao Tome and PrincipeProportional
Saudi ArabiaNot applicable
SenegalMixed
SerbiaProportional
SeychellesMixed
Sierra LeonePlurality/Majority
SingaporePlurality/Majority
SlovakiaProportional
SloveniaProportional
Solomon IslandsPlurality/Majority
SomaliaNot applicable
South AfricaProportional
South KoreaMixed
South SudanIn transition
SpainProportional
Sri LankaProportional
SudanMixed
SurinameProportional
SwedenProportional
SwitzerlandProportional
SyriaPlurality/Majority
TaiwanMixed
TajikistanMixed
TanzaniaPlurality/Majority
ThailandMixed
Timor LesteProportional
TogoProportional
TokelauPlurality/Majority
TongaPlurality/Majority
Trinidad and TobagoPlurality/Majority
TunisiaPlurality/Majority
TurkeyProportional
TurkmenistanPlurality/Majority
Turks and Caicos IslandsPlurality/Majority
TuvaluPlurality/Majority
UgandaPlurality/Majority
UkraineMixed
United Arab EmiratesNot applicable
United KingdomPlurality/Majority
United StatesPlurality/Majority
UruguayProportional
UzbekistanPlurality/Majority
VanuatuOther
Vatican CityNot applicable
VenezuelaMixed
VietnamPlurality/Majority
YemenPlurality/Majority
ZambiaPlurality/Majority
ZimbabweMixed
showing: 212 rows

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Country
Office
Electoral System
Specifics
AfghanistanHead of StateElection by unelected bodyElected by the Leadership Council through consensus
AlbaniaHead of StateIndirectElected by the Parliament via a secret vote
AlbaniaUnicameral legislatureProportionalParty list PR: Open lists, D'Hondt method
AlgeriaHead of StateSingle winnerTwo-round system (TRS)
AlgeriaLower Chamber of LegislatureProportionalParty list PR: Open lists, Largest remainder method (Hare quota)
AlgeriaUpper Chamber of LegislatureIndirect2/3 indirect election, 1/3 appointed by president
AndorraHeads of StateNo electionPresident of France (elected directly in France) and the Bishop of Urgell (appointed by the Holy See)
AndorraUnicameral legislatureMixedParallel voting: party block voting (local) + list PR (nationwide)
AngolaHead of State and GovernmentSingle winnerFirst-past-the-post (FPTP) between the top candidates on party lists for National Assembly elections
AngolaUnicameral legislatureProportionalParty list PR: Closed lists, D'Hondt method
Antigua and BarbudaHead of StateNo electionHereditary monarchy
Antigua and BarbudaLower chamber of legislatureMajoritarianFirst-past-the-post (FPTP/SMP)
Antigua and BarbudaUpper chamber of legislatureNo electionAppointed by the Governor-General
ArgentinaHead of State and GovernmentSingle winnerModified Two-round system
ArgentinaLower chamber of legislatureProportionalParty list PR: Closed lists, D'Hondt method
ArgentinaUpper chamber of legislatureSemi-proportionalLimited voting with party-lists: 2 seats to most voted party or coalition in each province, 1 seat to second most voted party or coalition (limited vote with closed lists)
ArmeniaHead of StateSingle winnerSince 2018, the President is elected by members of parliament.
ArmeniaUnicameral legislatureProportionalParty list PR / optional runoff with majority jackpot or minority jackpot: Largest remainder. Nationwide Closed list and an Open list in each of 13 election districts.
AustraliaHead of StateNo electionHereditary monarchy
AustraliaLower chamber of legislatureMajoritarianInstant runoff voting (IRV)
AustraliaUpper chamber of legislatureProportionalSingle transferable vote (STV)
AustriaHead of StateSingle winnerTwo-round system (TRS)
AustriaLower chamber of legislatureProportionalParty list PR: Largest remainder (Hare quota) at district and regional levels, D'Hondt method for remaining votes at national level
AustriaUpper chamber of legislatureIndirectProportional to the distribution of seats in the state parliaments (indirect Party list PR)
AzerbaijanHead of StateSingle winnerFirst-past-the-post (FPTP)
AzerbaijanUnicameral legislatureMajoritarianFirst-past-the-post (FPTP/SMP)
BahamasHead of StateNo electionHereditary monarchy
BahamasLower chamber of legislatureMajoritarianFirst-past-the-post (FPTP/SMP)
BahamasUpper chamber of legislatureNo electionAppointed by the Governor-General
BahrainHead of State and GovernmentNo electionHereditary monarchy
BahrainLower chamber of legislatureMajoritarianTwo-round system (TRS)
BahrainUpper chamber of legislatureNo electionAppointed by the King
BangladeshHead of StateIndirectElected by the Parliament
BangladeshUnicameral legislatureMajoritarianFirst-past-the-post (FPTP/SMP)
BarbadosHead of StateIndirectElected by the Parliament
BarbadosLower chamber of legislatureMajoritarianFirst-past-the-post (FPTP/SMP)
BarbadosUpper chamber of legislatureNo electionAppointed by the President
BelarusHead of State and GovernmentSingle winnerTwo-round system
BelarusLower chamber of legislatureMajoritarianFirst-past-the-post (FPTP/SMP)
BelarusUpper chamber of legislatureIndirectEach oblast (six) and the city of Minsk (the national capital) are represented by eight members, and an additional eight members are appointed to the council via presidential quota
BelgiumHead of StateNo electionHereditary monarchy
BelgiumLower chamber of legislatureProportionalParty list PR (flexible lists): D'Hondt method
BelgiumUpper chamber of legislatureIndirect50 Senators elected by the community/regional parliaments10 Senators co-opted by the other senators
BelizeHead of StateNo electionHereditary monarchy
BelizeLower chamber of legislatureMajoritarianFirst-past-the-post (FPTP/SMP)
BelizeUpper chamber of legislatureNo electionAppointed by the Governor-General on the advice of the Prime Minister (6), the Leader of the Opposition (3), and other organisations (4)
BeninHead of State and GovernmentSingle winnerTwo-round system (TRS)
BeninUnicameral legislatureProportionalParty list PR: Largest remainder (24 districts)
BhutanHead of StateNo electionHereditary monarchy
BhutanLower chamber of legislatureMajoritarianTwo-round system (TRS) variant, only top two parties enter second round
BhutanUpper chamber of legislatureMajoritarianFirst-past-the-post (FPTP/SMP)
BoliviaHead of State and GovernmentSingle winnerModified Two-round system (Double simultaneous) (winner with 50% of votes or 40% and a 10% lead over the second)
BoliviaLower chamber of legislatureMixedMMP: FPTP (70 seats) / Party-list proportional representation: Closed lists: D'Hondt method (60 seats)
BoliviaUpper chamber of legislatureProportionalParty list PR: D'Hondt method
Bosnia and HerzegovinaHeads of StateMajoritarianFirst-past-the-post (FPTP/SMP)
Bosnia and HerzegovinaLower chamber of legislatureProportionalParty list PR: Sainte-Laguë method
Bosnia and HerzegovinaUpper chamber of legislature
BotswanaHead of State and Government
BotswanaUnicameral legislatureMajoritarianFirst-past-the-post (FPTP/SMP)
BrazilHead of State and GovernmentSingle winnerTwo-round system (TRS)
BrazilLower chamber of legislatureProportionalParty list PR: Open lists: D'Hondt method
BrazilUpper chamber of legislatureMajoritarianPlurality block voting (BV) and First-past-the-post (FPTP/SMP)
BruneiHead of State and Government
BulgariaHead of StateSingle winnerTwo-round system (TRS)
BulgariaUnicameral legislatureProportionalParty list PR: Closed lists: D'Hondt method
Burkina FasoHead of StateSingle winnerTwo-round system (TRS)
Burkina FasoUnicameral legislatureProportionalParty list PR: Largest remainder (Hare quota)
BurundiHead of State and GovernmentSingle winnerTwo-round system (TRS)
BurundiLower chamber of legislatureProportionalParty list PR: D'Hondt method
BurundiUpper chamber of legislature
CambodiaLower chamber of legislatureMixedParallel voting: FPTP + Party list PR: D'Hondt method
CambodiaUpper chamber of legislature
CameroonHead of State and GovernmentSingle winnerTwo-round system (TRS)
CameroonLower chamber of legislatureMajoritarianMixed-member majoritarian representationFirst-past-the-post (FPTP/SMP) in single-member constituencies, in multi-member constituencies party with over 50% of vote gets all seats (party block voting), otherwise highest party gets half, rest distributed by largest remainder (Hare quota)
CameroonUpper chamber of legislature
CanadaHead of StateNo electionHereditary monarchy
CanadaLower chamber of legislatureMajoritarianFirst-past-the-post (FPTP/SMP)
CanadaUpper chamber of legislatureNo electionAppointed by the Governor-General on advice of the Prime Minister
Cape VerdeHead of StateSingle winnerTwo-round system (TRS)
Cape VerdeUnicameral legislatureProportionalParty list PR: D'Hondt method
Central African RepublicHead of State and GovernmentSingle winnerFirst-past-the-post (FPTP)
Central African RepublicLower chamber of legislatureMajoritarianTwo-round system (TRS)
Central African RepublicUpper chamber of legislature
ChadHead of StateSingle winnerTwo-round system (TRS)
ChadUnicameral legislatureMajoritarianMixed-member majoritarian representation:First-past-the-post (FPTP/SMP) party with over 50% of vote gets all seats in multi-member constituencies (party block voting), otherwise List PR (largest remainder, closed list)
ChileHead of State and GovernmentSingle winnerTwo-round system (TRS)
ChileLower chamber of legislatureProportionalParty list PR: Open lists: D'Hondt method
ChileUpper chamber of legislatureProportionalParty list PR: Open lists: D'Hondt method
ChinaHead of StateSingle winnerIndirect election by the National People's Congress
ChinaUnicameral legislatureMajoritarianBlock approval voting: Direct election of local People's Congresses and indirect election of all higher levels of People's Congresses
ColombiaHead of State and GovernmentSingle winnerTwo-round system (TRS)
ColombiaLower chamber of legislatureProportionalParty list PR: D'Hondt method
ColombiaUpper chamber of legislatureProportionalParty list PR: D'Hondt method
ComorosHead of State and GovernmentSingle winnerTwo-round system (TRS)
ComorosUnicameral legislatureMajoritarianTwo-round system (TRS)
Costa RicaHead of State and GovernmentSingle winnerModified Two-round system (TRS): 40% of votes needed to win in first round
Costa RicaUnicameral legislatureProportionalParty list PR: Largest remainder method
CroatiaHead of StateSingle winnerTwo-round system (TRS)
CroatiaUnicameral legislatureProportionalParty list PR: D'Hondt method, plus some reserved for minorities and Croatians living abroad
CubaHead of State and Government
CubaUnicameral legislatureMajoritarianTwo-round system, Endorsement of selected candidates
CyprusHead of State and GovernmentSingle winnerTwo-round system (TRS)
CyprusUnicameral legislatureProportionalParty list PR: Open lists (Hare quota): Largest remainder (with remainder allocated at national level)
Czech RepublicHead of StateSingle winnerTwo-round system (TRS)
Czech RepublicLower chamber of legislatureProportionalParty list PR: Open lists (Imperiali quota and Hagenbach-Bischoff quota)
Czech RepublicUpper chamber of legislatureMajoritarianTwo-round system (TRS)
DenmarkUnicameral legislatureProportionalParty list PR MMP: D'Hondt method (135 constituency seats elected in districts varying from 1 to 23 seats each), Sainte-Laguë method (40 leveling seats)
DjiboutiHead of State and GovernmentSingle winnerTwo-round system (TRS)
DjiboutiUnicameral legislatureMajoritarianFusion / majority jackpot:80% of seats (rounded to the nearest integer) in each constituency are awarded to the party receiving the most votes (party block voting), remaining seats are allocated proportionally to other parties receiving over 10% (closed list, D'Hondt method)
DominicaUnicameral legislatureMajoritarianFirst-past-the-post (FPTP/SMP)
Dominican RepublicHead of State and GovernmentSingle winnerTwo-round system (TRS)
Dominican RepublicLower chamber of legislatureProportionalParty list PR: D'Hondt method
Dominican RepublicUpper chamber of legislatureMajoritarianFirst-past-the-post (FPTP/SMP)
DR CongoHead of StateSingle winnerFirst-past-the-post (FPTP)
DR CongoLower chamber of legislatureMixedMixed-member majoritarian representation:First-past-the-post (FPTP/SMP) in single-member districts and List PR in multi-member districts (Largest remainder)
DR CongoUpper chamber of legislatureIndirectIndirect election by provincial assemblies
EcuadorHead of State and GovernmentSingle winnerTwo-round system (TRS)
EcuadorUnicameral legislatureProportionalParty list PR: Closed lists: Sainte-Laguë method
EgyptHead of StateSingle winnerTwo-round system (TRS)
EgyptUnicameral legislatureMixedParallel voting[citation needed]: Two-round system (TRS) (448 seats) + Party list PR (120 seats)
El SalvadorHead of State and GovernmentSingle winnerTwo-round system (TRS)
El SalvadorUnicameral legislatureProportionalParty list PR: D'Hondt method
Equatorial GuineaHead of State and GovernmentSingle winnerFPTP
Equatorial GuineaLower chamber of legislatureProportionalParty list
Equatorial GuineaUpper chamber of legislature
EritreaHead of State and Government
EritreaUnicameral legislatureMajoritarianFirst-past-the-post (FPTP/SMP)
EstoniaHead of StateSingle winnerElected by the parliament (Riigikogu) or by special electoral body
EstoniaUnicameral legislatureProportionalParty list PR: D'Hondt method (12 districts)
EswatiniHead of State and GovernmentNo electionHereditary monarchy
EswatiniLower chamber of legislatureMajoritarianFirst-past-the-post (FPTP/SMP), with 10 members appointed by the Ngwenyama
EswatiniUpper chamber of legislatureIndirectPartly appointed by the Ngwenyama (2/3), partly elected by the House of Assembly
EthiopiaHead of StateIndirectElected by a 2/3 supermajority in the Federal Parliamentary Assembly
EthiopiaLower chamber of legislatureMajoritarianFirst-past-the-post (FPTP/SMP)
EthiopiaUpper chamber of legislatureIndirectElected by regional councils
FijiUnicameral legislatureProportionalParty list PR: Open lists: D'Hondt method
FinlandHead of StateSingle winnerTwo-round system (TRS)
FinlandUnicameral legislatureProportionalParty list PR: Open lists: D'Hondt method (12 districts + 1 seat Åland FPTP)
FranceHead of StateSingle winnerTwo-round system (TRS)
FranceLower chamber of legislatureMajoritarianTwo-round system (TRS)
FranceUpper chamber of legislatureElected indirectly by approximately 150,000 officials ("grands électeurs"), including regional councilors, department councilors, mayors, city councilors in large towns, and members of the National Assembly
GabonHead of State and GovernmentSingle winnerFPTP
GabonLower chamber of legislatureMajoritarianTwo-round system (TRS)
GabonUpper chamber of legislature
GambiaHead of State and GovernmentSingle winnerFPTP
GambiaUnicameral legislatureMajoritarianFirst-past-the-post (FPTP/SMP)
GeorgiaHead of StateSingle winnerTwo-round system (TRS)
GeorgiaUnicameral legislatureMixedParallel voting / superposition (MMM): Two-round system (TRS) + Party-list PR (closed list)
GermanyHead of StateSingle winnerFederal Convention Half the member are the Bundestag, the other half is appointed by state legislatures
GermanyLower chamber of legislatureProportionalMMP: Sainte-Laguë using regional fixed lists / FPTP
GermanyUpper chamber of legislatureappointed by the 16 State Governments respectively
GhanaHead of State and GovernmentSingle winnerTwo-round system (TRS)
GhanaUnicameral legislatureMajoritarianFirst-past-the-post (FPTP/SMP)
GibraltarUnicameral legislatureMajoritarianPlurality block voting
GreeceHead of StateSingle winnerElected by the parliament
GreeceUnicameral legislatureProportional (2023), semi-proportional (after 2023)Party-list proportional representation: all 300 seats proportionally divided via several allocations (for 2023 elections) Majority bonus system (MBS): 250 seats proportionally divided via several allocations; between 20 and 50 bonus seats to the party placing first (after 2023 elections)
GrenadaHead of StateNo electionHereditary monarchy
GrenadaLower chamber of legislatureMajoritarianFPTP
GrenadaUpper chamber of legislature
GuatemalaHead of State and GovernmentSingle winnerTwo-round system (TRS)
GuatemalaUnicameral legislatureProportionalParty list PR: D'Hondt method
GuineaHead of StateSingle winnerTwo-round system (TRS)
GuineaUnicameral legislatureMixedParallel voting: 38 FPTP + 76 Party list PR (Hare quota)
Guinea-BissauHead of StateSingle winnerTwo-round system (TRS)
Guinea-BissauUnicameral legislatureProportionalParty list (closed lists) (27 districts)
GuyanaHead of State and GovernmentSingle winnerFPTP (Double simultaneous)
GuyanaUnicameral legislatureMixedMixed member party list PR: Closed lists: Largest remainder (Hare quota)
HaitiHead of StateSingle winnerTwo-round system (TRS)
HaitiLower chamber of legislatureTwo-round system (TRS)
HaitiUpper chamber of legislature
HondurasHead of State and GovernmentSingle winnerFPTP
HondurasUnicameral legislatureProportionalParty list PR: Largest remainder (Hare quota)
Hong KongUnicameral legislatureMajoritarianParallel votingGeographical Constituencies by popular vote: single non-transferable vote Functional Constituencies and the Election Committee Constituency: FPTP and Bloc voting
HungaryHead of StateSingle winnerElected by the National Assembly
HungaryUnicameral legislatureMixedMixed-member majoritarian: 106 FPTP + 93 national list-PR (combination of partially compensatory system and mixed single vote)
IcelandHead of StateSingle winnerFPTP
IcelandUnicameral legislatureProportionalParty list PR: D'Hondt method
IndiaHead of Stateelected by an electoral college
IndiaLower chamber of legislatureMajoritarianFPTP
IndiaUpper chamber of legislaturenot elected by direct vote of the people—elected by each state Vidhan Sabha using STV
IndonesiaHead of StateSingle winnerTwo-round system (TRS)
IndonesiaLower chamber of legislatureProportionalParty list PR: Open lists: Webster/Sainte-Laguë method
IndonesiaUpper chamber of legislatureSemi-proportionalSingle non-transferable vote (SNTV)
IranHead of State and GovernmentSingle winnerTwo-round system (TRS)
IranMajoritarianTwo-round block voting (25% of votes in 1st round)
IranMajoritarianBlock voting
IraqUnicameral legislatureSemi-proportionalSingle non-transferable vote (SNTV)
IrelandHead of StateSingle winnerInstant runoff voting (IRV)
IrelandLower chamber of legislatureProportionalSingle transferable vote (STV)
IrelandUpper chamber of legislatureIndirect election: – 11 nominated by the Taoiseach – 6 elected by the graduates of certain Irish universities: 3 by graduates of Dublin University 3 by graduates of the National University – 43 elected from five special panels of nominees (known as vocational panels) by an electorate consisting of TDs (member of Dáil Éireann), outgoing senators and members of city and county councils
IsraelHead of StateSingle winnerElected by the Knesset
IsraelUnicameral legislatureProportionalParty list PR: Closed lists: D'Hondt method
ItalyHead of State
ItalyLower chamber of legislatureMixedParallel voting: 232 FPTP seats + 398 (including citizens abroad) Party list PR seats (largest remainder and Hare quota), no panachage allowed in parallel voting
ItalyUpper chamber of legislatureMixedParallel voting: 116 FPTP seats + 199 (including citizens abroad) Party list PR seats (largest remainder and Hare quota), no panachage allowed in parallel voting
Ivory CoastHead of State and GovernmentSingle winnerTwo-round system (TRS)
Ivory CoastLower chamber of legislatureMajoritarianFPTP
Ivory CoastUpper chamber of legislature
JamaicaHead of StateNo electionHereditary monarchy
JamaicaLower chamber of legislatureMajoritarianFPTP
JapanHead of State
JapanLower chamber of legislatureMixedParallel voting: FPTP (295 seats) + Party list PR (Closed list) D'Hondt method (180 seats)
JapanUpper chamber of legislatureMixedParallel voting: SNTV (73 seats) + Party list PR (Open list) D'Hondt method (96 seats)
JordanHead of State and Government
JordanLower chamber of legislatureMixedParallel voting: each voter has one vote for one candidate in one subdistrict of his choice in the district he lives in (like SNTV), one winner per subdistrict (like FPTP) (108 seats in 45 districts including 12 seats reserved for minorities) + 15 seats reserved for women (best losers) + Party list PR (closed lists) (27 seats)
JordanUpper chamber of legislature
KazakhstanHead of State and GovernmentSingle winnerTwo-round system (TRS)
KazakhstanLower chamber of legislatureProportionalParty-list
KazakhstanUpper chamber of legislature
KenyaHead of State and GovernmentSingle winnerTwo round vote
KenyaLower chamber of legislatureMajoritarianPlurality: 337 FPTP + 12 List proportional to seats won
KenyaUpper chamber of legislatureMajoritarianPlurality: 47 FPTP + 20 List proportional to seats won
KiribatiHead of State and GovernmentSingle winnerFPTP
KiribatiUnicameral legislatureMajoritarianModified runoff
KuwaitHead of State and Government
KuwaitUnicameral legislatureSemi-proportionalSingle non-transferable vote (1 vote for 10 seats)
KyrgyzstanHead of State and GovernmentSingle winnerTwo-round system (TRS)
KyrgyzstanUnicameral legislatureMixedParallel voting: First-past-the-post (36 seats) + Party list PR (54 seats)
LaosHead of State and Government
LaosUnicameral legislatureMajoritarianBloc voting
LatviaUnicameral legislatureProportionalParty list PR: Sainte-Laguë method
LebanonUnicameral legislatureProportionalParty list PR (open list): D'Hondt method
LesothoLower chamber of legislatureProportionalMMP using mixed single vote: (40 party list seats / 80 FPTP seats)
LesothoUpper chamber of legislature
LiberiaHead of State and GovernmentSingle winnerTwo-round system (TRS)
LiberiaLower chamber of legislatureMajoritarianFPTP
LiberiaUpper chamber of legislatureMajoritarianFPTP
LiechtensteinHead of State and Government
LiechtensteinUnicameral legislatureProportionalParty list PR: Largest remainder (Hare quota)
LithuaniaHead of StateSingle winnerTwo-round system (TRS)
LithuaniaUnicameral legislatureMixedParallel voting: Two-round system (71 seats) + Party list PR (70 seats, Largest remainder)
LuxembourgUnicameral legislatureProportionalParty list PR:Open lists:D'Hondt method
MacauUnicameral legislatureProportionalParty list PR: D'Hondt method
MadagascarHead of StateSingle winnerTwo-round system (TRS)
MadagascarLower chamber of legislatureMajoritarianParallel voting: FPTP (87 seats) + Party list PR (Closed list, highest averages method; 64 seats)
MadagascarUpper chamber of legislature
MalawiHead of State and GovernmentSingle winnerFirst-past-the-post (FPTP)
MalawiUnicameral legislatureMajoritarianFirst-past-the-post (FPTP)
MalaysiaHead of StateSingle winnerFirst-past-the-post (FPTP) in which a state ruler with most votes proclaimed as the King
MalaysiaLower chamber of legislatureMajoritarianFirst-past-the-post (FPTP)
MalaysiaUpper chamber of legislatureIndirectIndirect elections for 26 seats (each two seats are determined by the State Legislative Assemblies) + 44 seats appointed by the Yand di-Pertuan Agong (of which 4 of the seats are reserved to the Federal Territories members)
MaldivesHead of State and GovernmentSingle winnerTwo-round system (TRS)
MaldivesUnicameral legislatureMajoritarianFirst-past-the-post (FPTP)
MaliHead of StateSingle winnerTwo-round system (TRS)
MaliUnicameral legislatureMajoritarianTwo-round system (TRS)
MaltaUnicameral legislatureProportionalSingle transferable vote (STV) modified with gender corrective seats
Marshall IslandsHead of State and Government
Marshall IslandsUnicameral legislatureMixedParallel voting: FPTP (19 seats) + Bloc voting (14 seats)
MauritaniaHead of StateSingle winnerTwo-round system (TRS)
MauritaniaUnicameral legislatureMixedParallel voting: 106 in 46 districts; in districts with 1-2 seats : Two-round system, in larger districts: List-PR (simple quota largest remainder; closed-list) + twice 20 nationally (one set of 20 reserved for women): List-PR (simple quota largest remainder; closed-list)
MauritiusUnicameral legislatureMajoritarianBloc voting
MexicoHead of State and GovernmentSingle winnerFirst-past-the-post (FPTP)
MexicoLower chamber of legislatureMixedParallel voting: FPTP (300 seats) + Largest remainder (Hare quota) (200 seats)
MexicoUpper chamber of legislatureMixedParallel voting: Largest remainder (Hare quota) + winner takes 2, second takes 1 (limited (party) block voting with closed lists)
MicronesiaHead of State and Government
MicronesiaUnicameral legislatureMajoritarianFirst-past-the-post (FPTP)
MoldovaHead of StateSingle winnerTwo-round system(TRS)
MoldovaUnicameral legislatureProportionalParty list PR: D'Hondt method
MonacoHead of State and Government
MonacoUnicameral legislatureMixedParallel voting: Plurality-at-large voting in single nationwide constituency (16 seats) + D'Hondt method (8 seats)
MongoliaHead of StateSingle winnerTwo-round system (TRS)
MongoliaUnicameral legislatureMajoritarianPlurality-at-large voting (76 seats, 1-3 per district) Candidates have to get at least 28% of the votes in a district to get elected. If there are unfilled seat, a runoff is held with twice the number of candidates as there are unfilled seats.
MontenegroHead of StateSingle winnerTwo-round system (TRS)
MontenegroUnicameral legislatureProportionalParty list PR: Closed lists: D'Hondt method
MontserratUnicameral legislature
MoroccoHead of State and Government
MoroccoLower chamber of legislatureMixedParallel voting: Largest remainder (295 seats) + list of women (30 seats)
MoroccoUpper chamber of legislature
MozambiqueHead of StateSingle winnerTwo-round system (TRS)
MozambiqueUnicameral legislatureProportionalParty list PR: D'Hondt method
MyanmarLower chamber of legislatureMajoritarianFirst-past-the-post (FPTP)
MyanmarUpper chamber of legislatureMajoritarianFirst-past-the-post (FPTP)
NamibiaHead of StateSingle winnerTwo-round system (TRS)
NamibiaLower chamber of legislatureProportionalParty list PR: Hare quota + 6 appointed
NamibiaUpper chamber of legislature
NauruHead of State and Government
NauruUnicameral legislatureSemi-proportionalModified Borda Count (Dowdall system, First ranked candidate gets 1 point, second 1/2, third 1/3 and so on.)
NepalLower chamber of legislatureMixedParallel voting: FPTP (165 seats) + Party list PR: Closed lists: Modified Sainte-Laguë method (110 seats)
NepalUpper chamber of legislature
NetherlandsLower chamber of legislatureProportionalParty list PR: Open lists: D'Hondt method
NetherlandsUnicameral legislatureProportionalParty list PR: Open lists: D'Hondt method
NetherlandsUpper chamber of legislatureProportionalElected by members of states-provincial using Party list PR
New ZealandUnicameral legislatureProportionalMMP: Sainte-Laguë method (48+ seats) / FPTP (72 district seats which also includes 7 seats reserved for Maori)
NicaraguaHead of State and GovernmentSingle winnerFirst-past-the-post (FPTP)
NicaraguaUnicameral legislatureProportionalParty list PR: D'Hondt method
NigerHead of StateSingle winnerTwo-round system (TRS)
NigerUnicameral legislatureProportionalParty list (105 seats) + 8 from FPTP
NigeriaHead of State and GovernmentSingle winnerTwo-round system (TRS)
NigeriaLower chamber of legislatureMixedFirst-past-the-post (FPTP)
NigeriaUpper chamber of legislatureMixedFirst-past-the-post (FPTP)
NiueUnicameral legislatureMixedParallel voting: FPTP (14 seats) + Bloc voting (6 seats)
North KoreaUnicameral legislatureEndorsement of candidate
North MacedoniaHead of StateSingle winnerTwo-round system (TRS)
North MacedoniaUnicameral legislatureProportionalParty list PR: D'Hondt method
Northern CyprusHead of State and GovernmentSingle winnerTwo-round system (TRS)
Northern CyprusUnicameral legislatureProportionalParty list PR: Open lists
NorwayUnicameral legislatureProportionalParty list PR: Open lists: Modified Sainte-Laguë method
OmanHead of State and Government
OmanLower chamber of legislature
OmanUpper chamber of legislature
PakistanHead of StateSingle winnerElectoral college Electors consist of National Assembly, Senate and provincial assemblies
PakistanLower chamber of legislatureMajoritarianFPTP (272 seats) (+ 70 members appointed by parties proportional with seats already won)
PakistanUpper chamber of legislature
PalauHead of StateSingle winnerTwo-round system (TRS)
PalauLower chamber of legislatureMajoritarianFirst-past-the-post (FPTP)
PalauUpper chamber of legislatureMajoritarianFirst-past-the-post (FPTP)
PalestineHead of StateSingle winnerFirst-past-the-post (FPTP)
PalestineUnicameral legislatureMixedParallel voting: Bloc voting or FPTP (66 seats) + Party list PR (Sainte-Laguë method; closed list; 66 seats)
PanamaHead of State and GovernmentSingle winnerFirst-past-the-post (FPTP)
PanamaUnicameral legislatureMixedMixed-member majoritarian representation: Single-member constituencies: FPTP; multi-member: Saripolo or Sartori method (Largest remainder, but remainders only for those with no seats)
Papua New GuineaHead of StateNo electionHereditary monarchy
Papua New GuineaUnicameral legislatureMajoritarianInstant runoff voting (IRV)
ParaguayHead of State and GovernmentSingle winnerFPTP
ParaguayLower chamber of legislatureProportionalParty list PR: D'Hondt method
ParaguayUpper chamber of legislatureProportionalParty list PR: D'Hondt method
PeruHead of State and GovernmentSingle winnerTwo-round system (TRS)
PeruUnicameral legislatureProportionalParty list PR: Largest remainder
PhilippinesHead of State and GovernmentSingle winnerFirst-past-the-post (FPTP)
PhilippinesLower chamber of legislatureMixedParallel voting: FPTP (229 districts in 2010, 232 in 2013, 238 in 2016, 243 in 2019) + Party list (closed lists; modified Hare quota with 3-seat cap and no remainders; 57 seats in 2010, 58 in 2013, 59 in 2016, 61 in 2019)
PhilippinesUpper chamber of legislatureMajoritarianBloc voting
PolandHead of StateSingle winnerTwo-round system (TRS)
PolandLower chamber of legislatureProportionalParty list PR: D'Hondt method
PolandUpper chamber of legislatureMajoritarianFirst-past-the-post (FPTP)
PortugalHead of StateSingle winnerTwo-round system (TRS)
PortugalUnicameral legislatureProportionalParty list PR: Closed lists: D'Hondt method
Republic of the CongoHead of StateSingle winnerTwo-round system (TRS)
Republic of the CongoLower chamber of legislatureMajoritarianTwo-round system (TRS)
Republic of the CongoUpper chamber of legislature
RomaniaHead of StateSingle winnerTwo-round system (TRS)
RomaniaLower chamber of legislatureProportionalParty list PR: Closed lists: D'Hondt method
RomaniaUpper chamber of legislatureProportionalParty list PR: Closed lists: D'Hondt method
RussiaHead of State and GovernmentSingle winnerTwo-round system (TRS)
RussiaLower chamber of legislatureMixedParallel voting: FPTP (225 seats)[67] + Party list (225 seats)
RussiaUpper chamber of legislature
RwandaHead of State and GovernmentSingle winnerFPTP
RwandaLower chamber of legislatureProportionalParty list PR: Largest remainder
RwandaUpper chamber of legislature
Saint Kitts and NevisHead of StateNo electionHereditary monarchy
Saint Kitts and NevisUnicameral legislatureMajoritarianFirst-past-the-post (FPTP)
Saint LuciaHead of StateNo electionHereditary monarchy
Saint LuciaLower chamber of legislatureMajoritarianFirst-past-the-post (FPTP)
Saint LuciaUpper chamber of legislature
Saint Vincent and the GrenadinesHead of StateNo electionHereditary monarchy
Saint Vincent and the GrenadinesUnicameral legislatureMajoritarianFirst-past-the-post (FPTP)
SamoaUnicameral legislatureMajoritarianParallel voting: FPTP (35 seats) + Bloc voting (14 seats)
San MarinoHead of State and Government
San MarinoUnicameral legislatureProportionalParty list using a D'Hondt method with, if no government is formed, second round with only 2 largest parties (national majority bonus/jackpot)
Sao Tome and PrincipeHead of StateSingle winnerTwo-round system (TRS)
Sao Tome and PrincipeUnicameral legislatureProportionalParty list: closed lists (7 districts)
SenegalHead of State and GovernmentSingle winnerTwo-round system (TRS)
SenegalUnicameral legislatureMixedParallel voting: 105 seats by First-past-the-post or Party Bloc vote + 60 seats by Proportional Representation
SerbiaHead of StateSingle winnerTwo-round system (TRS)
SerbiaUnicameral legislatureProportionalParty list PR: D'Hondt method
SeychellesHead of State and GovernmentSingle winnerFirst-past-the-post (FPTP)
SeychellesUnicameral legislatureMixedParallel voting: FPTP (25 seats) + Party list PR (Hare quota , 8 seats)
Sierra LeoneHead of State and GovernmentSingle winnerTwo-round system (TRS)
Sierra LeoneUnicameral legislatureProportionalParty list PR
SingaporeHead of StateSingle winnerFirst-past-the-post (FPTP)
SingaporeUnicameral legislatureMajoritarianParallel voting: Party bloc voting (79 seats) + FPTP (14 seats)
SlovakiaHead of StateSingle winnerTwo-round system (TRS)
SlovakiaUnicameral legislatureProportionalParty list PR: flexible lists: Hagenbach-Bischoff
SloveniaHead of StateSingle winnerTwo-round system (TRS)
SloveniaLower chamber of legislatureProportionalParty list PR: D'Hondt method (88 seats) + 2 seats by Borda Count
SloveniaUpper chamber of legislature
Solomon IslandsHead of StateNo electionHereditary monarchy
Solomon IslandsUnicameral legislatureMajoritarianFirst-past-the-post (FPTP)
SomaliaHead of StateSingle winnerindirect election by the Federal Parliament of Somalia
SomaliaLower chamber of legislature
SomaliaUpper chamber of legislature
SomalilandLower chamber of legislature
SomalilandUpper chamber of legislature
South AfricaHead of State and GovernmentIndirectElected by the National Assembly (candidates must be a member of the National Assembly at the time of election)
South AfricaLower chamber of legislatureProportionalParty list PR: Closed lists: Droop quota
South AfricaUpper chamber of legislature
South KoreaHead of State and GovernmentSingle winnerFPTP
South KoreaUnicameral legislatureMixedCombination of parallel voting and additional member system: FPTP (253 seats) / AMS party list (30 seats) / parallel party list (closed lists: modified Hare quota largest remainder method) (17 seats)
South SudanHead of State and Government
South SudanLower chamber of legislature
South SudanUpper chamber of legislature
SpainLower chamber of legislatureProportionalParty list PR: Closed lists: D'Hondt method
SpainUpper chamber of legislatureSemi-proportionalLimited vote (3 votes for 4 seats) (208 members), appointment by regional legislatures (variable)
Sri LankaHead of StateSingle winnerSri Lankan contingent vote
Sri LankaUnicameral legislatureProportionalParty list PR: Open lists: Largest remainder (Hare quota)
SurinameHead of State and GovernmentIndirectElected by a 2/3 supermajority in the National Assembly
SurinameUnicameral legislatureProportionalParty list PR: Open lists: (10 districts)
SwedenUnicameral legislatureProportionalParty list PR: Open lists: Modified Sainte-Laguë
SwitzerlandHead of State and GovernmentIndirectrotation among 7 members of Federal Council
SwitzerlandLower chamber of legislatureProportionalParty list PR: Open lists: D'Hondt method
SwitzerlandUpper chamber of legislatureVariesTwo-round system (42 seats), Proportional representation (4 seats: Neuchâtel and Jura)
SyriaHead of StateSingle winnerTwo-round system (TRS)
SyriaUnicameral legislature
TaiwanHead of StateSingle winnerFirst-past-the-post (FPTP)
TaiwanUnicameral legislatureMixedParallel voting: FPTP (73 seats) + Party-list PR (Hare quota) (34 seats) Aboriginal seats: SNTV (6 seats)
TajikistanHead of State and GovernmentSingle winnerFirst-past-the-post (FPTP)
TajikistanLower chamber of legislatureMixedParallel voting: Two-round system single-member constituencies (41 seats) + Party list (22 seats)
TajikistanUpper chamber of legislature
TanzaniaHead of State and GovernmentSingle winnerTwo-round system (TRS)
TanzaniaUnicameral legislatureMixedParallel voting: FPTP (264 seats) + 5 Elected Indirectly by Zanzibar's Legislature + 5 Appointed by the President + 1 Ex-officio[77] + Party list (113 seats)
ThailandHead of StateNo electionHereditary monarchy
ThailandLower chamber of legislatureMixedParallel voting: FPTP (400 seats) + party list (100 seats with mixed single vote)
ThailandUpper chamber of legislature
Timor-LesteHead of StateSingle winnerTwo-round system (TRS)
Timor-LesteUnicameral legislatureProportionalParty list PR: Largest remainder
TogoHead of State and GovernmentSingle winnerTwo-round system (TRS)
TogoUnicameral legislatureMajoritarianTwo-round system (TRS)
TongaHead of State and Government
TongaUnicameral legislatureMajoritarianTwo-round system (TRS)
Trinidad and TobagoHead of State
Trinidad and TobagoLower chamber of legislatureMajoritarianFirst-past-the-post (FPTP)
Trinidad and TobagoUpper chamber of legislature
TunisiaHead of StateSingle winnerTwo-round system (TRS)
TunisiaUnicameral legislatureProportionalParty-list PR: Closed list: Largest remainder method (Hare Quota)
TurkeyHead of State and GovernmentSingle winnerTwo-round system (TRS)
TurkeyUnicameral legislatureProportionalParty list PR: D'Hondt method, closed list
TurkmenistanHead of State and GovernmentSingle winnerTwo-round system (TRS)
TurkmenistanLower chamber of legislatureMajoritarianTwo-round system (TRS)
TurkmenistanUpper chamber of legislature
TuvaluHead of StateNo electionHereditary monarchy
TuvaluUnicameral legislatureMajoritarianParallel voting: Bloc voting (14 seats) + FPTP (1 seat)
UgandaHead of State and GovernmentSingle winnerFirst-past-the-post (FPTP)
UgandaUnicameral legislatureMajoritarianFirst-past-the-post (FPTP)
UkraineHead of StateSingle winnerTwo-round system (TRS)
UkraineUnicameral legislatureProportionalParty list PR: open regional lists
United KingdomDevolved regional legislatureProportionalSingle transferable vote (STV)
United KingdomDevolved regional legislatureMixed
United KingdomDevolved regional legislatureMixed
United KingdomHead of StateNo electionHereditary monarchy
United KingdomLower chamber of legislatureMajoritarianFirst-past-the-post (FPTP/SMP)
United KingdomLower chamber of legislatureMajoritarianFirst-past-the-post (FPTP/SMP)
United KingdomUnicameral legislatureMajoritarianFirst-past-the-post (FPTP/SMP)
United KingdomUnicameral legislatureMajoritarianFirst-past-the-post (FPTP/SMP)
United KingdomUpper chamber of legislatureNo election26 Lords Spiritual appointed as bishops by the Church of England, 92 Lords Temporal elected from the 806 hereditary peers by hereditary peers (or the entire House for 15 peers), and an unlimited number of Life Peers appointed by the monarch on the advice of the Prime Minister (currently 670)
United StatesHead of State and GovernmentSingle winnerElectoral college members chosen in block on basis of state-wide plurality on a per state basis, except in Maine and Nebraska, where two electors are chosen on a statewide basis, and one elector is chosen from each Congressional district on a per district basis.48 states, including Nebraska, use plurality basis to choose electoral college members for presidential general elections. Alaska and Maine use IRV. Party nominees chosen by delegates allocated in state primaries with varying methods by state and party.
United StatesLower chamber of legislatureMajoritarianFPTP for all seats in 41 states. Elsewhere: Two-round system in Georgia, Mississippi and Texas, Nonpartisan blanket primary in Alaska, California, Louisiana and Washington, and IRV in Alaska and Maine
United StatesUpper chamber of legislatureMajoritarianFPTP in 46 states.[note 2] Elsewhere: Instant-runoff voting in Alaska and Maine, Two-round system in Georgia and Mississippi
UruguayHead of State and GovernmentSingle winnerTwo-round system (TRS)
UruguayLower chamber of legislatureProportionalParty list PR: D'Hondt method, closed list
UruguayUpper chamber of legislatureProportionalParty list PR: D'Hondt method, closed list
UzbekistanHead of State and GovernmentSingle winnerTwo-round system (TRS)
UzbekistanLower chamber of legislature
UzbekistanUpper chamber of legislature
VanuatuUnicameral legislatureSemi-proportional MixedSingle non-transferable vote (SNTV)/First past the post
Vatican CityHead of State and GovernmentElection by unelected bodyElected by the College of Cardinals: Exhaustive ballot (2/3 majority required)
VenezuelaHead of State and GovernmentSingle winnerFirst-past-the-post (FPTP)
VenezuelaUnicameral legislatureMixedParallel voting: FPTP or bloc voting, and FPTP in districts reserved for indigenous peoples (113 seats) + Regional party list (closed list; D'Hondt method) (52 seats)
VietnamHead of StateIndirectElected by the National Assembly
VietnamUnicameral legislatureMajoritarianTwo-round system
YemenHead of StateSingle winnerTwo-round system (TRS)
YemenLower chamber of legislatureMajoritarianFirst-past-the-post (FPTP)
YemenUpper chamber of legislature
ZambiaHead of State and GovernmentSingle winnerTwo-round system (TRS)
ZambiaUnicameral legislatureMajoritarianFirst-past-the-post (FPTP)
ZimbabweHead of State and GovernmentSingle winnerTwo-round system (TRS)
ZimbabweLower chamber of legislatureMixedParallel voting: FPTP (210 seats) + Party list PR: Closed lists: Largest remainder method (Hare quota) (60 seats, 6 for each province, reserved for women, and based on vote in the districts)
ZimbabweUpper chamber of legislatureProportionalParty list PR: Closed lists: Largest remainder method (Hare quota) (60 seats, 6 for each province, based on vote for national assembly). Additionally the senate consists of 2 seats for each non-metropolitan district of Zimbabwe elected by each provincial assembly of chiefs using SNTV, 1 seat each for the president and deputy president of the National Council of Chiefs, 1 male and 1 female seat for people with disabilities elected on separate ballots using FPTP by an electoral college designated by the National Disability Board.
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Electoral Systems by Country 2024

What electoral system is used by most countries?

The majority of electoral systems involve a single-winner process to elect heads of state and legislatures. Approximately 120 different countries use this type of electoral system.

Frequently Asked Questions

Sources