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Electoral System

In transition

Mixed

Not applicable

Other

Plurality/Majority

Plurality/Majority and PR

Proportional

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Electoral Systems by Country 2024

There are many electoral systems used worldwide. Here is a summary explanation of the various types of electoral systems in alphabetical order.

Approval Voting

Under this system, the type of voting is majoritarian based on candidates, using a multiple-choice ballot that uses a plurality rule to determine a single winner or multi-winner.

Borda Count

Under this system, the type of voting is majoritarian/semi-proportional based on candidates, using a ranked-choice ballot that uses a plurality rule to determine a single winner or multi-winner. Condorcet Method

Under this system, the type of voting is majoritarian based on candidates, using a ranked-choice ballot that uses a majority against every candidate rule to determine a single winner.

Cumulative Voting

Under this system, the type of voting is majoritarian/semi-proportional based on candidates, using a cumulative ballot that uses a plurality rule to determine a single winner or multi-winner.

Dual Member Proportional

Under this system, the type of voting is semi-proportional/proportional based on a list or candidates, using a single-choice ballot that uses a plurality rule to determine a multi-winner.

Exhaustive Ballot

Under this system, the type of voting is majoritarian based on candidates, using a single-choice ballot that uses a majority rule to determine a single winner or multi-winner.

First-Past-The-Post (FPTP)

Under this two-round system, the type of voting is majoritarian based on candidates, using a single-choice ballot that uses a plurality rule to determine a single winner.

Instant-Runoff Voting

Under this system, the type of voting is majoritarian based on candidates, using a ranked-choice ballot that uses a majority rule to determine a single winner.

Limited Voting

Under this system, the type of voting is semi-proportional based on candidates, using a multiple-choice ballot that uses a plurality rule to determine a multi-winner.

Multiple Transferable Vote

Under this system, the type of voting is majoritarian based on candidates, using a ranked-choice ballot that uses a majority rule to determine a multi-winner.

Party-Block Voting

Under this system, the type of voting is majoritarian based on a list, using a single-choice ballot that uses a plurality rule to determine a multi-winner.

Party-List Proportional Representation (list-PR)

Under this system, the type of voting is semi-proportional/proportional based on a list or open list of candidates, using a single-choice ballot that uses a quota or divisor method to determine a multi-winner.

Plurality Block Voting

Under this system, the type of voting is majoritarian based on candidates, using a multiple-choice ballot that uses a plurality rule to determine a multi-winner.

Score Voting

Under this system, the type of voting is majoritarian/semi-proportional based on candidates, using a score ballot that uses a plurality rule to determine a single winner or multi-winner.

Seat-Linkage Compensatory Combination of FPTP + List-PR

Under this system, the type of voting is semi-proportional/proportional based on candidates + list, using a single-choice ballot that uses a mixed compensatory rule to determine a multi-winner (single winner in districts).

Single Non-Transferable Vote

Under this system, the type of voting is semi-proportional based on candidates, using a single-choice ballot that uses a plurality rule to determine a multi-winner.

Single Transferable Vote

Under this system, the type of voting is semi-proportional/proportional based on candidates, using a ranked-choice ballot that uses a quota rule to determine a multi-winner.

Superposition - Non-Compensatory Combo of FPTP + List-PR

Under this system, the type of voting is semi-proportional based on candidates + list using a single-choice ballot that uses a mixed non-compensatory rule to determine a multi-winner (single winner in districts).

Two-Round Block Voting

Under this system, the type of voting is majoritarian based on candidates, using a multiple-choice ballot that uses a majority rule to determine a multi-winner.

Two-Round System

Under this system, the type of voting is majoritarian based on candidates, using a single-choice ballot that uses a majority rule to determine a single winner.

Positive Vote Transfer System

Under this system, the type of voting is semi-proportional/proportional based on candidates + list, using a single-choice ballot that uses a mixed compensatory rule to determine a multi-winner (single winner in districts).

- According to the International Institute for Democracy and Electoral Assistance (IDEA), most electoral systems fall into one of three categories:plurality/majority systems, proportional systems (PR), and mixed systems.

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Country
Electoral System
AfghanistanOther
AlbaniaProportional
AlgeriaProportional
AndorraMixed
AngolaProportional
AnguillaPlurality/Majority
Antigua and BarbudaPlurality/Majority
ArgentinaProportional
ArmeniaProportional
ArubaProportional
AustraliaPlurality/Majority
AustriaProportional
AzerbaijanPlurality/Majority
BahamasPlurality/Majority
BahrainPlurality/Majority
BangladeshPlurality/Majority
BarbadosPlurality/Majority
BelarusPlurality/Majority
BelgiumProportional
BelizePlurality/Majority
BeninProportional
BermudaPlurality/Majority
BhutanPlurality/Majority
BoliviaMixed
Bosnia and HerzegovinaProportional
BotswanaPlurality/Majority
BrazilProportional
British Virgin IslandsPlurality/Majority
BruneiNot applicable
BulgariaProportional
Burkina FasoProportional
BurundiProportional
CambodiaProportional
CameroonPlurality/Majority
CanadaPlurality/Majority
Cape VerdeProportional
Cayman IslandsPlurality/Majority
Central African RepublicPlurality/Majority
ChadPlurality/Majority
ChileProportional
ChinaNot applicable
ColombiaProportional
ComorosPlurality/Majority
Cook IslandsPlurality/Majority
Costa RicaProportional
CroatiaProportional
CubaPlurality/Majority
CyprusProportional
Czech RepublicProportional
DenmarkProportional
DjiboutiMixed
DominicaPlurality/Majority
Dominican RepublicProportional
DR CongoPlurality/Majority and PR
EcuadorProportional
EgyptPlurality/Majority
El SalvadorProportional
Equatorial GuineaProportional
EritreaNot applicable
EstoniaProportional
EswatiniPlurality/Majority
EthiopiaPlurality/Majority
Falkland IslandsPlurality/Majority
FijiProportional
FinlandProportional
FrancePlurality/Majority
GabonPlurality/Majority
GambiaPlurality/Majority
GeorgiaMixed
GermanyMixed
GhanaPlurality/Majority
GibraltarOther
GreeceProportional
GreenlandProportional
GrenadaPlurality/Majority
GuatemalaProportional
GuernseyPlurality/Majority
GuineaMixed
Guinea BissauProportional
GuyanaProportional
HaitiPlurality/Majority
HondurasProportional
HungaryMixed
IcelandProportional
IndiaPlurality/Majority
IndonesiaProportional
IranPlurality/Majority
IraqPlurality/Majority
IrelandProportional
Isle of ManPlurality/Majority
IsraelProportional
ItalyMixed
Ivory CoastPlurality/Majority
JamaicaPlurality/Majority
JapanMixed
JerseyPlurality/Majority
JordanProportional
KazakhstanMixed
KenyaPlurality/Majority
KiribatiPlurality/Majority
KuwaitOther
KyrgyzstanMixed
LaosPlurality/Majority
LatviaProportional
LebanonProportional
LesothoMixed
LiberiaPlurality/Majority
LibyaMixed
LiechtensteinProportional
LithuaniaMixed
LuxembourgProportional
MadagascarPlurality/Majority and PR
MalawiPlurality/Majority
MalaysiaPlurality/Majority
MaldivesPlurality/Majority
MaliPlurality/Majority
MaltaProportional
Marshall IslandsPlurality/Majority
MauritaniaMixed
MauritiusPlurality/Majority
MexicoMixed
MicronesiaPlurality/Majority
MoldovaProportional
MonacoMixed
MongoliaPlurality/Majority
MontenegroProportional
MontserratPlurality/Majority
MoroccoProportional
MozambiqueProportional
MyanmarPlurality/Majority
NamibiaProportional
NauruOther
NepalMixed
NetherlandsProportional
New ZealandMixed
NicaraguaProportional
NigerProportional
NigeriaPlurality/Majority
NiuePlurality/Majority
North KoreaPlurality/Majority
North MacedoniaProportional
NorwayProportional
OmanPlurality/Majority
PakistanMixed
PalauPlurality/Majority
PalestineMixed
PanamaProportional
Papua New GuineaPlurality/Majority
ParaguayProportional
PeruProportional
PhilippinesMixed
PolandProportional
PortugalProportional
QatarPlurality/Majority
Republic of the CongoPlurality/Majority
RomaniaProportional
RussiaMixed
RwandaProportional
Saint Kitts and NevisPlurality/Majority
Saint LuciaPlurality/Majority
Saint Vincent and the GrenadinesPlurality/Majority
SamoaPlurality/Majority
San MarinoProportional
Sao Tome and PrincipeProportional
Saudi ArabiaNot applicable
SenegalMixed
SerbiaProportional
SeychellesMixed
Sierra LeonePlurality/Majority
SingaporePlurality/Majority
SlovakiaProportional
SloveniaProportional
Solomon IslandsPlurality/Majority
SomaliaNot applicable
South AfricaProportional
South KoreaMixed
South SudanIn transition
SpainProportional
Sri LankaProportional
SudanMixed
SurinameProportional
SwedenProportional
SwitzerlandProportional
SyriaPlurality/Majority
TaiwanMixed
TajikistanMixed
TanzaniaPlurality/Majority
ThailandMixed
Timor LesteProportional
TogoProportional
TokelauPlurality/Majority
TongaPlurality/Majority
Trinidad and TobagoPlurality/Majority
TunisiaPlurality/Majority
TurkeyProportional
TurkmenistanPlurality/Majority
Turks and Caicos IslandsPlurality/Majority
TuvaluPlurality/Majority
UgandaPlurality/Majority
UkraineMixed
United Arab EmiratesNot applicable
United KingdomPlurality/Majority
United StatesPlurality/Majority
UruguayProportional
UzbekistanPlurality/Majority
VanuatuOther
Vatican CityNot applicable
VenezuelaMixed
VietnamPlurality/Majority
YemenPlurality/Majority
ZambiaPlurality/Majority
ZimbabweMixed
showing: 212 rows

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Electoral Systems by Country 2024

What electoral system is used by most countries?

The majority of electoral systems involve a single-winner process to elect heads of state and legislatures. Approximately 120 different countries use this type of electoral system.

Frequently Asked Questions