Most Racially Diverse Countries 2022

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Race is the outmoded concept that the human race can be divided into several distinct groups of people based upon shared genetic or ethnic ancestry and/or traits. If a country is considered racially diverse, it is home to many different groups of people who share their own distinct characteristics. Race is a controversial subject, as genetic studies have confirmed that the concept has no biogenetic basis despite "racial" differences such as skin color and hair texture. Moreover, today's scholars point out that race is a cultural invention, largely originating during Europe's Age of Exploration (approx. 1400-1650), and has never had a clear definition. Sometimes it has referred to physical appearance (caucasian, negro) and at other times to continent of origin (Asians, Africans, Indians), language (Greeks, Arabs), religion (Jews, Muslims), or even nationality or ethnicity (Irish, Koreans, Hispanics). Racial diversity is often used (incorrectly) as a synonym for cultural diversity, a more scientifically sound concept that disregards genetics and focuses instead upon linguistic and ethnic variety. It is unrelated to the ecological concept of megadiversity.

Is diversity rising or falling in the world?

Racial diversity is growing in many nations, often as a result of increased immigration. This rise is arguably unsurprising when one considers the emergence of the global marketplace in recent decades and the ease of modern travel. Together, these factors have increased opportunities for people to relocate internationally for work, marriage, political reasons, or a simple change of scenery. According to a survey released by Pew Research Center in 2019, approximately 69% of people surveyed across 27 nations felt their respective nations have grown more diverse over the last 20 years. Nearly half of survey respondents approved of a more racially diverse nation, with only 23% viewing increased diversity as a negative development.

These trends followed certain demographic lines, with younger, more liberal, and more educated people favoring increased diversity while older, more conservative, and less educated respondents proved less fond of the idea. In the United States, the most diverse states are California, Texas, Hawaii, New Jersey, and New York. Contemporary immigrants typically settle in California, New York, Texas, and New Jersey—coastal states with large cities and increased likelihood of work opportunities—increasing those states' diversity.

What does "fractionalization" mean with regard to diversity?

One of the most comprehensive studies of diversity was created by a team of scholars from Harvard University, World Bank, Stanford, and New York University and published in the Journal of Economic Growth in a paper called "Fractionalization." Fractionalization is a measure of the likelihood that two randomly selected people in a given country will be from two different groups (ethnicities, religions, etc.) or speak two different languages. In its initial form, fractionalization is a number between 0 and 1, with 0 meaning no variation and 1 meaning complete variation.

This method of expressing fractionalization also lends itself readily to conversion into a probability percentage, which non-statisticians may find easier to parse. The ten most diverse countries according to ethnic fractionalization are listed below. A more comprehensive table further down adds more countries and also incorporates religious and linguistic fractionalization. These data often correspond broadly to the results of Erkan Gören's 2013 study on cultural diversity.

Top 10 Most Diverse Countries in the World (by Ethnic Fractionalization):

Rank Country Fractionalization Probability of diversity
1 Uganda .9302 93.02%
2 Liberia .9084 90.84%
3 Madagascar .8791 87.91%
4 Congo (Dem. Rep.) .8747 87.47%
5 Congo (Republic of) .8747 87.47%
6 Cameroon .8635 86.35%
7 Chad .8620 86.20%
8 Kenya .8588 85.88%
9 Nigeria .8505 85.05%
10 Central African Republic .8295 82.95%

  1. Uganda (93.02%)
  2. Liberia (90.84%)
  3. Madagascar (87.91%)
  4. DR Congo (87.47%)
  5. Republic of the Congo (87.47%)
  6. Cameroon (86.35%)
  7. Chad (86.20%)
  8. Kenya (85.88%)
  9. Nigeria (85.05%)
  10. Central African Republic (82.95%)

Most Racially Diverse Countries 2022

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Most Racially Diverse Countries 2022

Country Ethnic Fractionalization Linguistic Frac. Religious Frac. 2022 Population
Uganda93.02%92.27%63.32%48,432,863
Liberia90.84%90.38%48.83%5,305,117
Madagascar87.91%2.04%51.91%29,178,077
DR Congo87.47%87.05%70.21%95,240,792
Republic of the Congo87.47%68.71%66.42%5,797,805
Cameroon86.35%88.98%73.38%27,911,548
Chad86.20%86.35%64.11%17,413,580
Kenya85.88%88.60%77.65%56,215,221
Nigeria85.05%83.16%74.21%216,746,934
Central African Republic82.95%83.34%79.16%5,016,678
Ivory Coast82.04%78.42%75.51%27,742,298
Sierra Leone81.91%76.34%53.95%8,306,436
Somalia81.17%3.26%0.28%16,841,795
Guinea Bissau80.82%81.41%61.28%2,063,367
Djibouti79.62%65.58%4.35%1,016,097
Libya79.20%7.58%5.70%7,040,745
Benin78.72%79.05%55.44%12,784,726
Angola78.67%78.70%62.76%35,027,343
Gambia78.64%80.76%9.70%2,558,482
Zambia78.08%87.34%73.59%19,470,234
Afghanistan76.93%61.41%27.17%40,754,388
Gabon76.90%78.21%66.74%2,331,533
South Africa75.17%86.52%86.03%60,756,135
Qatar74.56%48.00%9.50%2,979,915
Bolivia73.96%22.40%20.85%11,992,656
Guinea73.89%77.25%26.49%13,865,691
Burkina Faso73.77%72.28%57.98%22,102,838
Tanzania73.53%89.83%63.34%63,298,550
Indonesia73.51%76.80%23.40%279,134,505
Suriname73.32%33.10%79.10%596,831
Ethiopia72.35%80.73%62.49%120,812,698
Sudan71.47%71.90%43.07%45,992,020
Andorra71.39%68.48%23.26%77,463
Canada71.24%57.72%69.58%38,388,419
Togo70.99%89.80%65.96%8,680,837
Pakistan70.98%71.90%38.48%229,488,994
Belize70.15%63.03%58.13%412,190
Micronesia70.05%74.83%64.69%117,489
Senegal69.39%70.81%14.97%17,653,671
Mozambique69.32%81.25%67.59%33,089,461
Mali69.06%83.88%18.20%21,473,764
Monaco68.38%73.05%30.47%39,783
Kyrgyzstan67.52%59.49%44.70%6,728,271
Malawi67.44%60.23%81.92%20,180,839
Ghana67.33%67.31%79.87%32,395,450
Iran66.84%74.62%11.52%86,022,837
Nepal66.32%71.67%14.17%30,225,582
Kuwait66.04%34.44%67.45%4,380,326
Peru65.66%33.58%19.88%33,684,208
Ecuador65.50%13.08%14.17%18,113,361
Eritrea65.24%65.30%42.53%3,662,244
Niger65.18%65.19%20.13%26,083,660
Trinidad And Tobago64.75%12.51%79.36%1,406,585
Thailand63.38%63.44%9.94%70,078,203
Namibia63.29%70.05%66.26%2,633,874
Bosnia And Herzegovina63.00%67.51%68.51%3,249,317
United Arab Emirates62.52%48.74%33.10%10,081,785
Guyana61.95%6.88%78.76%794,045
Kazakhstan61.71%66.21%58.98%19,205,043
Mauritania61.50%32.60%1.49%4,901,981
Bhutan60.50%60.56%37.87%787,941
Colombia60.14%1.93%14.78%51,512,762
Jordan59.26%3.96%6.59%10,300,869
Cuba59.08%0.00%50.59%11,305,652
Malaysia58.80%59.70%66.57%33,181,072
Latvia58.67%57.95%55.56%1,848,837
Nauru58.32%61.61%61.94%10,903
Serbia57.36%0.00%0.00%8,653,016
Liechtenstein57.26%22.46%33.43%38,387
Belgium55.54%54.09%21.27%11,668,278
Moldova55.35%55.33%56.03%4,013,171
Panama55.28%38.73%33.38%4,446,964
Fiji54.79%54.79%56.82%909,466
Mexico54.18%15.11%17.96%131,562,772
Brunei54.16%34.38%44.04%445,431
Brazil54.08%4.68%60.54%215,353,593
Syria53.99%18.17%43.10%19,364,809
Switzerland53.14%54.41%60.83%8,773,637
Luxembourg53.02%64.40%9.11%642,371
Laos51.39%63.82%54.53%7,481,023
Guatemala51.22%45.86%37.53%18,584,039
Tajikistan51.07%54.73%33.86%9,957,464
Myanmar50.62%50.72%19.74%55,227,143
Estonia50.62%49.44%49.85%1,321,910
North Macedonia50.23%50.21%58.99%2,081,304
Bahrain50.21%43.44%55.28%1,783,983
Venezuela49.66%6.86%13.50%29,266,991
Georgia49.23%47.49%65.43%3,968,738
United States49.01%56.47%82.41%334,805,269
Nicaragua48.44%4.73%42.90%6,779,100
Morocco48.41%46.83%0.35%37,772,756
Ukraine47.37%47.41%61.57%43,192,122
Mauritius46.34%45.47%63.85%1,274,727
Oman43.73%35.67%43.22%5,323,993
Palau43.12%31.57%71.47%18,233
Dominican Republic42.94%3.95%31.18%11,056,370
Bahamas42.28%18.55%68.15%400,516
India41.82%80.69%32.60%1,406,631,776
Cape Verde41.74%0.00%7.66%567,678
Spain41.65%41.32%45.14%46,719,142
Sri Lanka41.50%46.45%48.53%21,575,842
Jamaica41.29%10.98%61.60%2,985,094
Uzbekistan41.25%41.20%21.33%34,382,084
Botswana41.02%41.10%59.86%2,441,162
Bulgaria40.21%30.31%59.65%6,844,597
New Zealand39.69%16.57%81.10%4,898,203
Turkmenistan39.18%39.84%23.27%6,201,943
Zimbabwe38.74%44.72%73.63%15,331,428
Singapore38.57%38.35%65.61%5,943,546
Croatia36.90%7.63%44.47%4,059,286
Iraq36.89%36.94%48.44%42,164,965
Mongolia36.82%37.34%7.99%3,378,078
Equatorial Guinea34.67%32.20%11.95%1,496,662
Israel34.36%55.25%34.69%8,922,892
Algeria33.94%44.27%0.91%45,350,148
Rwanda32.38%0.00%50.66%13,600,464
Lithuania32.23%32.19%41.41%2,661,708
Czech Republic32.22%32.33%65.91%10,736,784
Belarus32.22%46.66%61.16%9,432,800
Turkey32.00%22.16%0.49%85,561,976
Romania30.69%17.23%23.73%19,031,335
Saint Vincent And the Grenadines30.66%1.75%70.28%111,551
Burundi29.51%29.77%51.58%12,624,840
San Marino29.27%0.00%19.75%34,085
Taiwan27.44%50.28%68.45%23,888,595
Papua New Guinea27.18%35.26%55.23%9,292,169
Grenada26.61%0.00%58.98%113,475
Argentina25.50%6.18%22.36%46,010,234
Lesotho25.50%25.43%72.11%2,175,699
Slovakia25.39%25.51%56.55%5,460,193
Uruguay25.04%8.17%35.48%3,496,016
Russia24.52%24.85%43.98%145,805,947
Philippines23.85%83.60%30.56%112,508,994
Vietnam23.83%23.77%50.80%98,953,541
Costa Rica23.68%4.89%24.10%5,182,354
Slovenia22.16%22.01%28.68%2,078,034
Albania22.04%3.99%47.19%2,866,374
Cambodia21.05%21.04%9.65%17,168,639
Azerbaijan20.47%20.54%48.99%10,300,205
Seychelles20.25%16.06%23.23%99,426
Dominica20.03%0.00%46.28%72,344
El Salvador19.78%0.00%35.59%6,550,389
Honduras18.67%5.53%23.57%10,221,247
Chile18.61%18.71%38.41%19,250,195
Saint Kitts And Nevis18.42%0.00%66.14%53,871
Egypt18.36%2.37%19.79%106,156,692
Saudi Arabia18.00%9.49%12.70%35,844,909
Saint Lucia17.69%31.69%33.20%185,113
Paraguay16.89%59.75%21.23%7,305,843
Germany16.82%16.42%65.71%83,883,596
Antigua And Barbuda16.43%10.63%68.40%99,509
Tuvalu16.29%13.72%25.24%12,066
Greece15.76%3.00%15.30%10,316,637
China15.38%13.27%66.43%1,448,471,400
Hungary15.22%2.97%52.44%9,606,259
Barbados14.23%9.26%69.34%288,023
Samoa13.76%1.11%78.71%202,239
Finland13.15%14.12%25.31%5,554,960
Lebanon13.14%13.12%78.86%6,684,849
Armenia12.72%12.92%45.76%2,971,966
United Kingdom12.11%5.32%69.44%68,497,907
Ireland12.06%3.12%15.50%5,020,199
Poland11.83%4.68%17.12%37,739,785
Italy11.45%11.47%30.27%60,262,770
Solomon Islands11.10%52.54%67.08%721,159
Austria10.68%15.22%41.46%9,066,710
Netherlands10.54%51.43%72.22%17,211,447
France10.32%12.21%40.29%65,584,518
Haiti9.50%0.00%47.04%11,680,283
Cyprus9.39%39.62%39.62%1,223,387
Australia9.29%33.49%82.11%26,068,792
Tonga8.69%37.82%62.14%107,749
Denmark8.19%10.49%23.33%5,834,950
Iceland7.98%8.20%19.13%345,393
Hong Kong6.20%21.28%41.91%7,604,299
Marshall Islands6.03%7.34%52.07%60,057
Sweden6.00%19.68%23.42%10,218,971
Norway5.86%6.73%20.48%5,511,370
Eswatini5.82%17.22%44.44%1,184,817
Kiribati5.11%2.37%55.41%123,419
Portugal4.68%1.98%14.38%10,140,570
Bangladesh4.54%9.25%20.90%167,885,689
Malta4.14%9.07%12.23%444,033
Vanuatu4.13%57.94%70.44%321,832
Tunisia3.94%1.24%1.04%12,046,656
South Korea3.92%0.28%48.91%51,329,899
Japan1.19%1.78%54.06%125,584,838
North Korea0.20%0.21%66.04%25,990,679
Yemen0.00%0.80%0.23%31,154,867
South Sudan0.00%0.00%0.00%11,618,511
Palestine0.00%1.04%3.42%5,345,541
Puerto Rico0.00%3.52%49.52%2,829,812
Timor Leste0.00%52.61%42.54%1,369,429
Reunion0.00%15.78%19.52%908,061
Comoros0.00%1.03%1.37%907,419
Macau0.00%25.19%55.11%667,490
Montenegro0.00%0.00%0.00%627,950
Maldives0.00%0.00%0.00%540,985
Guadeloupe0.00%9.33%30.69%399,794
Martinique0.00%0.00%23.36%374,087
French Guiana0.00%11.54%49.59%314,169
New Caledonia0.00%66.33%54.62%290,915
Mayotte0.00%72.12%6.20%286,259
French Polynesia0.00%60.78%58.13%284,164
Sao Tome And Principe0.00%23.22%18.66%227,679
Guam0.00%73.20%40.82%171,519
Aruba0.00%38.89%41.07%107,609
United States Virgin Islands0.00%31.40%63.59%103,971
Isle of Man0.00%0.00%47.29%85,732
Bermuda0.00%0.00%71.12%61,939
Northern Mariana Islands0.00%77.54%48.11%58,269
Greenland0.00%21.88%45.92%56,973
American Samoa0.00%17.33%63.95%55,030
Faroe Islands0.00%0.00%31.47%49,233
Vatican City0.00%0.00%0.00%799

Most Racially Diverse Countries 2022

Sources